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Aperture

About: Aperture is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 44310 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 467495 citation(s). The topic is also known as: diaphragm.
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01 Jan 2005-
Abstract: This paper presents a camera that samples the 4D light field on its sensor in a single photographic exposure. This is achieved by inserting a microlens array between the sensor and main lens, creating a plenoptic camera. Each microlens measures not just the total amount of light deposited at that location, but how much light arrives along each ray. By re-sorting the measured rays of light to where they would have terminated in slightly different, synthetic cameras, we can compute sharp photographs focused at different depths. We show that a linear increase in the resolution of images under each microlens results in a linear increase in the sharpness of the refocused photographs. This property allows us to extend the depth of field of the camera without reducing the aperture, enabling shorter exposures and lower image noise. Especially in the macrophotography regime, we demonstrate that we can also compute synthetic photographs from a range of different viewpoints. These capabilities argue for a different strategy in designing photographic imaging systems. To the photographer, the plenoptic camera operates exactly like an ordinary hand-held camera. We have used our prototype to take hundreds of light field photographs, and we present examples of portraits, high-speed action and macro close-ups.

2,119 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Sep 1989-Optics Letters
TL;DR: A simple yet highly sensitive single-beam experimental technique for the determination of both the sign and magnitude of n(2), where the sample is moved along the z direction of a focused Gaussian beam while the repetitively pulsed laser energy is held fixed.
Abstract: We present a simple yet highly sensitive single-beam experimental technique for the determination of both the sign and magnitude of n2. The sample is moved along the z direction of a focused Gaussian beam while the repetitively pulsed laser energy is held fixed. The resultant plot of transmittance through an aperture in the far field yields a dispersion-shaped curve from which n2 is easily calculated. A transmittance change of 1% corresponds to a phase distortion of ≃ λ/250. We demonstrate this method on several materials using both CO2 and Nd:YAG laser pulses.

2,057 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Subwave length‐resolution optical image recording is demonstrated by moving an extremely narrow aperture along a test object equipped with fine‐line structures. Details of 25‐nm size can be recognized using 488‐nm radiation. The result indicates a resolving power of at least λ/20 which is to be compared with the values of λ/2.3 obtainable in conventional optical microscopy.

2,000 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
02 Aug 2002-Science
TL;DR: A periodic texture on the exit side of a single aperture in a metal film is created and, when combined with enhanced transmission, suggests that a wide range of photonic applications is possible.
Abstract: Light usually diffracts in all directions when it emerges from a subwavelength aperture, which puts a lower limit on the size of features that can be used in photonics. This limitation can be overcome by creating a periodic texture on the exit side of a single aperture in a metal film. The transmitted light emerges from the aperture as a beam with a small angular divergence (approximately ±3°) whose directionality can be controlled. This finding is especially surprising, considering that the radiating region is mainly confined to an area with lateral dimensions comparable to the wavelength of the light. The device occupies no more than one cubic micrometer and, when combined with enhanced transmission, suggests that a wide range of photonic applications is possible.

1,749 citations


Proceedings ArticleDOI
29 Jul 2007-
TL;DR: A simple modification to a conventional camera is proposed to insert a patterned occluder within the aperture of the camera lens, creating a coded aperture, and introduces a criterion for depth discriminability which is used to design the preferred aperture pattern.
Abstract: A conventional camera captures blurred versions of scene information away from the plane of focus. Camera systems have been proposed that allow for recording all-focus images, or for extracting depth, but to record both simultaneously has required more extensive hardware and reduced spatial resolution. We propose a simple modification to a conventional camera that allows for the simultaneous recovery of both (a) high resolution image information and (b) depth information adequate for semi-automatic extraction of a layered depth representation of the image. Our modification is to insert a patterned occluder within the aperture of the camera lens, creating a coded aperture. We introduce a criterion for depth discriminability which we use to design the preferred aperture pattern. Using a statistical model of images, we can recover both depth information and an all-focus image from single photographs taken with the modified camera. A layered depth map is then extracted, requiring user-drawn strokes to clarify layer assignments in some cases. The resulting sharp image and layered depth map can be combined for various photographic applications, including automatic scene segmentation, post-exposure refocusing, or re-rendering of the scene from an alternate viewpoint.

1,424 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20229
2021961
20201,429
20191,656
20181,526
20171,417

Top Attributes

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Jiro Hirokawa

37 papers, 190 citations

Rémi Soummer

36 papers, 1K citations

David J. Brady

32 papers, 1.9K citations

David R. Smith

29 papers, 1K citations

Colin J. R. Sheppard

23 papers, 622 citations