About: Aphididae is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 5036 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 92167 citation(s). The topic is also known as: the aphids.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: It is shown that one of the three most common facultative symbionts of pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum), the bacterium Regiella insecticola, has a major effect on host resistance to a fungal pathogen.
Abstract: Aphids are associated with several facultative bacterial endosymbionts that may influence their interactions with other organisms We show here that one of the three most common facultative symbionts of pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum), the bacterium Regiella insecticola, has a major effect on host resistance to a fungal pathogen Experimental establishment of the bacterium in uninfected aphid clones led to higher survival after fungal attack The bacteria also increased the aphid's inclusive fitness, because the presence of the symbiont reduced the probability of fungal sporulation on aphid cadavers, hence lowering the rate of transmission of the disease to nearby related aphids
TL;DR: Phloem feeding on Arabidopsis leads to stimulation of response pathways associated with both pathogen infection and wounding, and application of the SA analog benzothiadiazole led to decreases in aphid reproduction on leaves of both wild-type plants and mutant plants deficient in responsiveness to SA.
Abstract: Little is known about molecular responses in plants to phloem feeding by insects. The induction of genes associated with wound and pathogen response pathways was investigated following green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) feeding on Arabidopsis. Aphid feeding on rosette leaves induced transcription of two genes associated with salicylic acid (SA)-dependent responses to pathogens (PR-1 and BGL2) 10- and 23-fold, respectively. Induction of PR-1 and BGL2 mRNA was reduced in npr1 mutant plants, which are deficient in SA signaling. Application of the SA analog benzothiadiazole led to decreases in aphid reproduction on leaves of both wild-type plants and mutant plants deficient in responsiveness to SA, suggesting that wild-type SA-dependent responses do not influence resistance to aphids. Two-fold increases occurred in mRNA levels of PDF1.2, which encodes defensin, a peptide involved in the jasmonate (JA)-/ethylene-dependent response pathway. Transcripts encoding JA-inducible lipoxygenase (LOX2) and SA/JA-inducible Phe-ammonia lyase increased 1.5- to 2-fold. PDF1.2 and LOX2 induction by aphids did not occur in infested leaves of the JA-resistant coi1-1 mutant. Aphid feeding induced 10-fold increases in mRNA levels of a stress-related monosaccharide symporter gene, STP4. Phloem feeding on Arabidopsis leads to stimulation of response pathways associated with both pathogen infection and wounding.
TL;DR: Volatiles obtained by air entrainment of aphid infested plants were more attractive to A. ervi than those from uninfested plants, in both behavioral bioassays and activity of pure compounds, which significantly increased parasitoid responses to these compounds.
Abstract: Herbivore induced release of plant volatiles mediating the foraging behavior of the aphid parasitoid Aphidius ervi was investigated using the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, feeding on broad bean, Vicia faba. Behavioral responses were studied using an olfactometer and a wind tunnel. Volatiles obtained by air entrainment of aphid infested plants were more attractive to A. ervi than those from uninfested plants, in both behavioral bioassays. GC-EAG of both extracts showed a number of peaks associated with responses by A. ervi, but with some differences between extracts. Compounds giving these peaks were tentatively identified by GC-MS and confirmed by comparison with authentic samples on GC, using two columns of different polarity. The activity of pure compounds was further investigated by EAG and wind tunnel assays. Results showed that, of the compounds tested, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one was the most attractive for A. ervi females, with linalool, (Z)-3-hexen-1-yl acetate, (E)-β-ocimene, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, and (E)-β-farnesene all eliciting significantly more oriented flight behavior than a solvent control. Foraging experience significantly increased parasitoid responses to these compounds, with the exception of (E)-β-farnesene. Time-course GC analysis showed that feeding of A. pisum on V. faba induced or increased the release of several compounds. Release of two of these compounds (6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one and geranic acid) was not induced by the nonhost black bean aphid, Aphis fabae. During the analysis period, production of (E)-β-ocimene remained constant, but 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, linalool, geranic acid, and (E)-β-farnesene appeared during the first day after A. pisum infestation and increased in concentration with increasing time of aphid feeding.
TL;DR: Recent studies into the differential expression of Pto‐ and Pti1‐like kinase genes in wheat plants resistant to the Russian wheat aphid provide evidence of the involvement of the Pto class of resistance genes in arthropod resistance.
Abstract: Plant genes participating in the recognition of aphid herbivory in concert with plant genes involved in defense against herbivores mediate plant resistance to aphids. Several such genes involved in plant disease and nematode resistance have been characterized in detail, but their existence has only recently begun to be determined for arthropod resistance. Hundreds of different genes are typically involved and the disruption of plant cell wall tissues during aphid feeding has been shown to induce defense responses in Arabidopsis , Tr iticum , Sorghum , and Nicotiana species . Mi-1.2 , a tomato gene for resistance to the potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), is a member of the nucleotidebinding site and leucine-rich region Class II family of disease, nematode, and arthropod resistance genes. Recent studies into the differential expression of Pto - and Pti1 -like kinase genes in wheat plants resistant to the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), provide evidence of the involvement of the Pto class of resistance genes in arthropod resistance. An analysis of available data suggests that aphid feeding may trigger multiple signaling pathways in plants. Early signaling includes gene-for-gene recognition and defense signaling in aphid-resistant plants, and recognition of aphidinflicted cell damage in both resistant and susceptible plants. Furthermore, signaling is mediated by several compounds, including jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, ethylene, abscisic acid, giberellic acid, nitric oxide, and auxin. These signals lead to the development of direct chemical defenses against aphids and general stress-related responses that are well characterized for a number of abiotic and biotic stresses. In spite of major plant taxonomic differences, similarities exist in the types of plant genes expressed in response to feeding by different species of aphids. However, numerous differences in plant signaling and defense responses unique to specific aphid‐plant interactions have been identified and warrant further investigation.
TL;DR: The ET developed here is strongly supported through soybean growth stage R5, which provides a 7-d lead time before aphid populations are expected to exceed the economic injury level (EIL) and exposes a larger portion of the soybean aphid population to selection by insecticides, which could lead to development of insecticide resistance.
Abstract: Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), reached damaging levels in 2003 and 2005 in soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, in most northern U.S. states and Canadian provinces, and it has become one of the most important pests of soybean throughout the North Central region. A common experimental protocol was adopted by participants in six states who provided data from 19 yield-loss experiments conducted over a 3-yr period. Population doubling times for field populations of soybean aphid averaged 6.8 d ± 0.8 d (mean ± SEM). The average economic threshold (ET) over all control costs, market values, and yield was 273 ± 38 (mean ± 95% confidence interval [CI], range 111–567) aphids per plant. This ET provides a 7-d lead time before aphid populations are expected to exceed the economic injury level (EIL) of 674 ± 95 (mean ± 95% CI, range 275–1,399) aphids per plant. Peak aphid density in 18 of the 19 location-years occurred during soybean growth stages R3 (beginning pod formation) to R5 (full size pod) with a single data set having aphid populations peaking at R6 (full size green seed). The ET developed here is strongly supported through soybean growth stage R5. Setting an ET at lower aphid densities increases the risk to producers by treating an aphid population that is growing too slowly to exceed the EIL in 7 d, eliminates generalist predators, and exposes a larger portion of the soybean aphid population to selection by insecticides, which could lead to development of insecticide resistance.