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Apical cytoplasm

About: Apical cytoplasm is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 1080 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 36131 citation(s).


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TL;DR: Results indicate that such site-specific concentrations of cytoskeletal actin are characteristic of the AE membrane lesion and can form the basis of a simple, highly sensitive diagnostic test for EPEC and EHEC.
Abstract: Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) adhere to the intestinal mucosa and produce an attaching and effacing (AE) lesion in the brush border microvillous membrane; the AE lesion is characterized by localized destruction of microvilli and intimate attachment of bacteria to the apical enterocyte membrane. A similar lesion is seen when bacteria adhere in vitro to a variety of human tissue culture cell lines. In both cases, dense concentrations of microfilaments are present in the apical cytoplasm beneath attached bacteria. Using a fluorescein-labeled phallotoxin, we have shown that these microfilaments are composed of actin. Cells infected with EPEC and EHEC strains known from electron microscopic studies to produce the AE lesion all exhibited intense spots of fluorescence which corresponded in size and position with each adherent bacterium; cells infected with adherent E. coli strains known not to produce the AE lesion did not produce this striking pattern of fluorescence and were indistinguishable from uninfected control cells. These results indicate that such site-specific concentrations of cytoskeletal actin are characteristic of the AE membrane lesion and can form the basis of a simple, highly sensitive diagnostic test for EPEC and EHEC. Images

847 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Large coated vesicles serve as heterophagosomes to transport absorbed protein to lysosomes, and some small coated vedicle serve as primary lysOSome to transport hydrolytic enzymes from the Golgi complex to multivesicular bodies.
Abstract: The role of coated vesicles during the absorption of horseradish peroxidase was investigated in the epithelium of the rat vas deferens by electron microscopy and cytochemistry. Peroxidase was introduced into the vas lumen in vivo. Tissue was excised at selected intervals, fixed in formaldehyde-glutaraldehyde, sectioned without freezing, incubated in Karnovsky's medium, postfixed in OsO(4), and processed for electron microscopy. Some controls and peroxidase-perfused specimens were incubated with TPP,(1) GP, and CMP. Attention was focused on the Golgi complex, apical multivesicular bodies, and two populations of coated vesicles; large (> 1000 A) ones concentrated in the apical cytoplasm and small (<750 A) ones found primarily in the Golgi region. 10 min after peroxidase injection, the tracer is found adhering to the surface plasmalemma, concentrated in bristle-coated invaginations, and within large coated vesicles. After 20-45 min, it is present in large smooth vesicles, apical multivesicular bodies, and dense bodies. Peroxidase is not seen in small coated vesicles at any interval. Counts of small coated vesicles reveal that during peroxidase absorption they first increase in number in the Golgi region and later, in the apical cytoplasm. In both control and peroxidase-perfused specimens incubated with TPP, reaction product is seen in several Golgi cisternae and in small coated vesicles in the Golgi region. With GP, reaction product is seen in one to two Golgi cisternae, multivesicular bodies, dense bodies, and small coated vesicles present in the Golgi region or near multivesicular bodies. The results demonstrate that (a) this epithelium functions in the absorption of protein from the duct lumen, (b) large coated vesicles serve as heterophagosomes to transport absorbed protein to lysosomes, and (c) some small coated vesicles serve as primary lysosomes to transport hydrolytic enzymes from the Golgi complex to multivesicular bodies.

787 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
S. P. Sorokin1
TL;DR: Reconstruction of the processes of centriolar formation and ciliogenesis based on evidence found in electron micrographs of tissues and organ cultures obtained chiefly from the lungs of foetal rats leads to an interpretation of the centriole as a semi-autonomous organelle whose replicative capacity is separable from the characteristic triplet fibre structure of its wall.
Abstract: This study presents reconstructions of the processes of centriolar formation and ciliogenesis based on evidence found in electron micrographs of tissues and organ cultures obtained chiefly from the lungs of foetal rats. A few observations on living cultures supplement the major findings. In this material, centrioles are generated by two pathways. Those centrioles that are destined to participate in forming the achromatic figure, or to sprout transitory, rudimentary (primary) cilia, arise directly off the walls of pre-existing centrioles. In pulmonary cells of all types this direct pathway operates during interphase. The daughter centrioles are first recognizable as annular structures (procentrioles) which lengthen into cylinders through acropetal deposition of osmiophilic material in the procentriolar walls. Triplet fibres develop in these walls from singlet and doublet fibres that first appear near the procentriolar bases and thereafter extend apically. When little more than half grown, the daughter centrioles are released into the cytoplasm, where they complete their maturation. A parent centriole usually produces one daughter at a time. Exceptionally, up to 8 have been observed to develop simultaneously about 1 parent centriole. Primary cilia arise from directly produced centrioles in differentiating pulmonary cells of all types throughout the foetal period. In the bronchial epithelium they appear before the time when the ciliated border is generated. Fairly late in foetal life, centrioles destined to become kinetosomes in ciliated cells of the epithelium become assembled from masses of fibrogranular material located in the apical cytoplasm. Formation of these centrioles may be under the remote influence of the diplosomal centrioles. More certainly, the precursor material accumulates in close proximity to Golgi elements. Within the fibrogranular areas, osmiophilic granules (400-800A) increase in size and eventually become consolidated into dense spheroidal bodies (deuterosomes), which organize the growth of procentrioles around them. When mature, the newly formed centrioles become aligned in rows beneath the apical plasma membrane. There each centriole produces satellites from its sides, a root from its base, and a cilium from its apex. Early stages in the formation of both primary cilia and those of the ciliated border are similar. In developing cilia of the ciliated border, however, the outer ciliary fibres rapidly reach the tips of the elongating shafts, and a central pair of fibres is formed (9 + 2 arrangement). In primary cilia, development of the fibres seems to lag behind the elongation of the shafts, and only the outer ciliary fibres appear (9 + 0 arrangement). The strengths and weaknesses of the proposed reconstructions of centriolar formation and ciliogenesis are discussed, and the occurrence in other living forms of similar pathways for centriolar formation is noted. Further discussion leads to an interpretation of the centriole as a semi-autonomous organelle whose replicative capacity is separable from the characteristic triplet fibre structure of its wall.

708 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is postulate that ingestion of foreign materials was accomplished by pinocytosis, that is, by invagination of the apical cell membrane to form vacuoles containing material from the intestinal lumen, and that adult animals may not have lost the capacity for pinocytes, but rather have become selective as to what substances provoke it.
Abstract: Proteins and colloidal materials, administered orally to suckling rats and mice, were ingested by columnar absorptive cells of the jejunum and ileum, but not of the duodenum. Bovine gamma globulin and ovalbumin were identified in the apical cytoplasm by staining with fluorescent antibody; trypan blue, Evans blue, saccharated iron oxide, and colloidal gold were detected intracellularly by their color, specific staining, and appearance in the electron microscope. Each substance was segregated in membrane-enclosed vacuoles, apparently part of a system of potentially interconnecting vacuoles and tubules in the apical cytoplasm which is continuous in places with the apical cell membrane. We postulate that ingestion of foreign materials was accomplished by pinocytosis, that is, by invagination of the apical cell membrane to form vacuoles containing material from the intestinal lumen. Approximately 18 days after birth columnar absorptive cells lost the ability to ingest proteins and colloids, and no longer contained large vacuoles and numerous tubules. At this age rats and mice lose the ability to absorb antibodies from the intestine in an immunologically intact form, and we conclude that cellular ingestion is part of the mechanism of absorption of intact proteins in suckling animals. Particulate fat apparently is absorbed in both newborn and adult animals by micropinocytosis. Thus adult animals may not have lost the capacity for pinocytosis, but rather have become selective as to what substances provoke it. Cortisone acetate, administered subcutaneously to rats 8 to 10 days old alters the columnar absorptive cells within 72 hours so that they resemble the cells in adult animals and no longer ingest proteins.

392 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The intestinal pathway for absorbed fat was traced in thin sections of intestinal villi from rats fed corn oil by stomach tube after a fast of 24 to 40 hours, and it is impossible to evaluate from the electron microscopic evidence thus far available the quantitative importance of particulate fat absorption by the mechanism described.
Abstract: The intestinal pathway for absorbed fat was traced in thin sections of intestinal villi from rats fed corn oil by stomach tube after a fast of 24 to 40 hours. For electron microscopy the tissues were fixed in chilled buffered osmium tetroxide and embedded in methacrylate. For light microscopy, other specimens from the same animals were fixed in formal-calcium, mordanted in K2Cr2O7, and embedded in gelatin. Frozen sections were stained with Sudan black B or Sudan IV. About 20 minutes after feeding, small fat droplets (65 mµ maximal diameter) appear in the striated border between microvilli. At the same time fat particles are seen within pinocytotic vesicles in the immediately subjacent terminal web. In later specimens the fat droplets are generally larger (50 to 240 mµ) and lie deeper in the apical cytoplasm. All intracellular fat droplets are loosely enveloped in a thin membrane, the outer surface of which is sometimes studded with the fine particulate component of the cytoplasm. This envelope, apparently derived from the cell surface by pinocytosis, has at this stage evidently become a part of the endoplasmic reticulum. Just above the nucleus numerous fat droplets lie clustered within the dilated cisternae of the Golgi complex. As absorption progresses fat droplets appear in the intercellular spaces of the epithelium, in the interstitial connective tissue spaces of the lamina propria, and in the lumen of the lacteals. All of these extracellular fat droplets are devoid of a membranous envelope. The picture of fat absorption as reconstructed from these studies involves a stream of fat droplets filtering through the striated border, entering the epithelial cell by pinocytosis at the bases of the intermicrovillous spaces, and coursing through the endoplasmic reticulum to be discharged at the sides of the epithelial cell into extracellular spaces. From the epithelial spaces, the droplets move into the lamina propria and thence into the lymph. If the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum is considered as continuous with the extracellular phase, then the entire pathway of fat absorption may be regarded as extracellular. However, it is impossible to evaluate from the electron microscopic evidence thus far available the quantitative importance of particulate fat absorption by the mechanism described.

356 citations

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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202112
20205
20195
20188
20175
201615