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Apochromat

About: Apochromat is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 642 publications have been published within this topic receiving 7934 citations.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The reduced eye was further modified by changing the refracting surface to an aspherical shape to reduce the amount of spherical aberration, providing an improved account of both the longitudinal and transverse forms of ocular chromatic aberration.
Abstract: New measurements of the chromatic difference of focus of the human eye were obtained with a two-color, vernier-alignment technique. The results were used to redefine the variation of refractive index of the reduced eye over the visible spectrum. The reduced eye was further modified by changing the refracting surface to an aspherical shape to reduce the amount of spherical aberration. The resulting chromatic-eye model provides an improved account of both the longitudinal and transverse forms of ocular chromatic aberration.

297 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Hybrid elements containing optical power with both diffractive (holographic) and refractive components are shown to be useful for obtaining arbitrary or, in special cases, achromatic dispersive characteristics.
Abstract: Hybrid elements containing optical power with both diffractive (holographic) and refractive components are shown to be useful for obtaining arbitrary or, in special cases, achromatic dispersive characteristics. In one configuration a volume holographic element is coated on the surface of a crown glass lens, and by varying the power distributions among the refractive and holographic components while maintaining constant overall optical power the effective Abbe V numbers of the resultant hybrid element are shown to span all real numbers excepting a narrow interval around zero. In the achromat case (V number = ∞), both refractive and diffractive components are of the same sign resulting in much smaller glass curvatures than in all-refractive achromat doublets or apochromat triplets. The large separation between holographic partial dispersions and available glass partial dispersions is shown to lead to hybrid three-color achromats with greatly reduced glass curvatures. Applications are expected to include broadband achromatic objectives and chromatic aberration corrector plates in high performance optical systems. Such corrector plates may have any net power (including zero) while exhibiting effective V numbers that are positive or negative and that span a wide range, e.g., ±1 or ±1000. Further advantages include reducing the need for choosing high dispersion glasses, which may be costly and difficult to grind or polish. High diffraction efficiency and broad spectral bandwidths (in excess of 3000 A) are obtained in the holographic optical elements using single-element central-stop and cascaded element designs.

287 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is shown that blazing the surface-relief diffractive lens for higher diffraction orders enables the design of achromatic and apochromatic singlets and the wavelength-dependent optical transfer function and the associated Strehl ratio are derived for multiorder diffractive lenses.
Abstract: Diffractive lenses have been traditionally designed with the first diffracted order. The spectral characteristics of diffractive lenses operating in higher diffracted orders differ significantly from the first-order case. Multiorder diffractive lenses offer a new degree of freedom in the design of broadband and multispectral optical systems that include diffractive optical elements. It is shown that blazing the surface-relief diffractive lens for higher diffraction orders enables the design of achromatic and apochromatic singlets. The wavelength-dependent optical transfer function and the associated Strehl ratio are derived for multiorder diffractive lenses. Experiments that illustrate lens performance in two spectral bands are described, and the results show excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions.

259 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work designed, fabricated and characterized cylindrical diffractive lenses that efficiently focus the entire visible band onto a single line, and offers polarization-insensitive focusing, all significant advantages compared to alternatives that rely on metasurfaces.
Abstract: We exploit the inherent dispersion in diffractive optics to demonstrate planar chromatic-aberration-corrected lenses. Specifically, we designed, fabricated and characterized cylindrical diffractive lenses that efficiently focus the entire visible band (450 nm to 700 nm) onto a single line. These devices are essentially pixelated, multi-level microstructures. Experiments confirm an average optical efficiency of 25% for a three-wavelength apochromatic lens whose chromatic focus shift is only 1.3 μm and 25 μm in the lateral and axial directions, respectively. Super-achromatic performance over the continuous visible band is also demonstrated with averaged lateral and axial focus shifts of only 1.65 μm and 73.6 μm, respectively. These lenses are easy to fabricate using single-step grayscale lithography and can be inexpensively replicated. Furthermore, these devices are thin (<3 μm), error tolerant, has low aspect ratio (<1:1) and offer polarization-insensitive focusing, all significant advantages compared to alternatives that rely on metasurfaces. Lastly, our design methodology offers high design flexibility in numerical aperture and focal length, and is readily extended to 2D.

170 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The spherical aberration of the eye was measured by placing a series of centered annular apertures over the eye pupil, and determining the optimum spectacle correction for each aperture by using a “double star” as a test object.
Abstract: The spherical aberration of the eye was measured by placing a series of centered annular apertures over the eye pupil, and determining the optimum spectacle correction for each aperture. A “double star” was used as a test object. Accommodation was controlled by reflecting a second test object into the field of view. The three eyes examined had positive (undercorrected) spherical aberration when unaccommodated; in one case 2 diopters at the pupil margin. The aberration was reduced with increasing accommodation and in one case became negative at high accommodation. Homatropine reduced the spherical aberration of two of the three eyes examined. A historical review of previous work is given.

144 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20214
20204
20196
20188
201716
201625