Topic

# Approximation algorithm

About: Approximation algorithm is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 23912 publications have been published within this topic receiving 654311 citations.

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TL;DR: This clearly written, mathematically rigorous text includes a novel algorithmic exposition of the simplex method and also discusses the Soviet ellipsoid algorithm for linear programming; efficient algorithms for network flow, matching, spanning trees, and matroids; the theory of NP-complete problems; approximation algorithms, local search heuristics for NPcomplete problems, more.

Abstract: This clearly written , mathematically rigorous text includes a novel algorithmic exposition of the simplex method and also discusses the Soviet ellipsoid algorithm for linear programming; efficient algorithms for network flow, matching, spanning trees, and matroids; the theory of NP-complete problems; approximation algorithms, local search heuristics for NPcomplete problems, more All chapters are supplemented by thoughtprovoking problems A useful work for graduate-level students with backgrounds in computer science, operations research, and electrical engineering Mathematicians wishing a self-contained introduction need look no further—American Mathematical Monthly 1982 ed

7,073 citations

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TL;DR: This work presents two algorithms based on graph cuts that efficiently find a local minimum with respect to two types of large moves, namely expansion moves and swap moves that allow important cases of discontinuity preserving energies.

Abstract: Many tasks in computer vision involve assigning a label (such as disparity) to every pixel. A common constraint is that the labels should vary smoothly almost everywhere while preserving sharp discontinuities that may exist, e.g., at object boundaries. These tasks are naturally stated in terms of energy minimization. The authors consider a wide class of energies with various smoothness constraints. Global minimization of these energy functions is NP-hard even in the simplest discontinuity-preserving case. Therefore, our focus is on efficient approximation algorithms. We present two algorithms based on graph cuts that efficiently find a local minimum with respect to two types of large moves, namely expansion moves and swap moves. These moves can simultaneously change the labels of arbitrarily large sets of pixels. In contrast, many standard algorithms (including simulated annealing) use small moves where only one pixel changes its label at a time. Our expansion algorithm finds a labeling within a known factor of the global minimum, while our swap algorithm handles more general energy functions. Both of these algorithms allow important cases of discontinuity preserving energies. We experimentally demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach for image restoration, stereo and motion. On real data with ground truth, we achieve 98 percent accuracy.

7,060 citations

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TL;DR: An analysis framework based on submodular functions shows that a natural greedy strategy obtains a solution that is provably within 63% of optimal for several classes of models, and suggests a general approach for reasoning about the performance guarantees of algorithms for these types of influence problems in social networks.

Abstract: Models for the processes by which ideas and influence propagate through a social network have been studied in a number of domains, including the diffusion of medical and technological innovations, the sudden and widespread adoption of various strategies in game-theoretic settings, and the effects of "word of mouth" in the promotion of new products. Recently, motivated by the design of viral marketing strategies, Domingos and Richardson posed a fundamental algorithmic problem for such social network processes: if we can try to convince a subset of individuals to adopt a new product or innovation, and the goal is to trigger a large cascade of further adoptions, which set of individuals should we target?We consider this problem in several of the most widely studied models in social network analysis. The optimization problem of selecting the most influential nodes is NP-hard here, and we provide the first provable approximation guarantees for efficient algorithms. Using an analysis framework based on submodular functions, we show that a natural greedy strategy obtains a solution that is provably within 63% of optimal for several classes of models; our framework suggests a general approach for reasoning about the performance guarantees of algorithms for these types of influence problems in social networks.We also provide computational experiments on large collaboration networks, showing that in addition to their provable guarantees, our approximation algorithms significantly out-perform node-selection heuristics based on the well-studied notions of degree centrality and distance centrality from the field of social networks.

5,447 citations

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TL;DR: The problem of finding the most influential nodes in a social network is NP-hard as mentioned in this paper, and the first provable approximation guarantees for efficient algorithms were provided by Domingos et al. using an analysis framework based on submodular functions.

Abstract: Models for the processes by which ideas and influence propagate through a social network have been studied in a number of domains, including the diffusion of medical and technological innovations, the sudden and widespread adoption of various strategies in game-theoretic settings, and the effects of "word of mouth" in the promotion of new products. Recently, motivated by the design of viral marketing strategies, Domingos and Richardson posed a fundamental algorithmic problem for such social network processes: if we can try to convince a subset of individuals to adopt a new product or innovation, and the goal is to trigger a large cascade of further adoptions, which set of individuals should we target?We consider this problem in several of the most widely studied models in social network analysis. The optimization problem of selecting the most influential nodes is NP-hard here, and we provide the first provable approximation guarantees for efficient algorithms. Using an analysis framework based on submodular functions, we show that a natural greedy strategy obtains a solution that is provably within 63% of optimal for several classes of models; our framework suggests a general approach for reasoning about the performance guarantees of algorithms for these types of influence problems in social networks.We also provide computational experiments on large collaboration networks, showing that in addition to their provable guarantees, our approximation algorithms significantly out-perform node-selection heuristics based on the well-studied notions of degree centrality and distance centrality from the field of social networks.

3,729 citations

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TL;DR: This article presents new results on using a greedy algorithm, orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP), to solve the sparse approximation problem over redundant dictionaries and develops a sufficient condition under which OMP can identify atoms from an optimal approximation of a nonsparse signal.

Abstract: This article presents new results on using a greedy algorithm, orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP), to solve the sparse approximation problem over redundant dictionaries. It provides a sufficient condition under which both OMP and Donoho's basis pursuit (BP) paradigm can recover the optimal representation of an exactly sparse signal. It leverages this theory to show that both OMP and BP succeed for every sparse input signal from a wide class of dictionaries. These quasi-incoherent dictionaries offer a natural generalization of incoherent dictionaries, and the cumulative coherence function is introduced to quantify the level of incoherence. This analysis unifies all the recent results on BP and extends them to OMP. Furthermore, the paper develops a sufficient condition under which OMP can identify atoms from an optimal approximation of a nonsparse signal. From there, it argues that OMP is an approximation algorithm for the sparse problem over a quasi-incoherent dictionary. That is, for every input signal, OMP calculates a sparse approximant whose error is only a small factor worse than the minimal error that can be attained with the same number of terms.

3,636 citations