About: Aptamer is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 12987 publications have been published within this topic receiving 407616 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The isolation of single-stranded DNA aptamers to the protease thrombin of the blood coagulation cascade is described and binding affinities in the range 25–200 nM are reported.
Abstract: Aptamers are double-stranded DNA or single-stranded RNA molecules that bind specific molecular targets. Large randomly generated populations can be enriched in aptamers by in vitro selection and polymerase chain reaction. But so far single-stranded DNA has not been investigated for aptamer properties, nor has a target protein been considered that does not interact physiologically with nucleic acid. Here we describe the isolation of single-stranded DNA aptamers to the protease thrombin of the blood coagulation cascade and report binding affinities in the range 25-200 nM. Sequence data from 32 thrombin aptamers, selected from a pool of DNA containing 60 nucleotides of random sequence, displayed a highly conserved 14-17-base region. Several of these aptamers at nanomolar concentrations inhibited thrombin-catalysed fibrin-clot formation in vitro using either purified fibrinogen or human plasma.
TL;DR: Aptamers are different from antibodies, yet they mimic properties of antibodies in a variety of diagnostic formats, and may play a key role either in conjunction with, or in place of, antibodies in the form of aptamer-based diagnostic products in the market.
Abstract: Antibodies, the most popular class of molecules providing molecular recognition needs for a wide range of applications, have been around for more than three decades. As a result, antibodies have made substantial contributions toward the advancement of diagnostic assays and have become indispensable in most diagnostic tests that are used routinely in clinics today. The development of the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) process, however, made possible the isolation of oligonucleotide sequences with the capacity to recognize virtually any class of target molecules with high affinity and specificity. These oligonucleotide sequences, referred to as "aptamers", are beginning to emerge as a class of molecules that rival antibodies in both therapeutic and diagnostic applications. Aptamers are different from antibodies, yet they mimic properties of antibodies in a variety of diagnostic formats. The demand for diagnostic assays to assist in the management of existing and emerging diseases is increasing, and aptamers could potentially fulfill molecular recognition needs in those assays. Compared with the bellwether antibody technology, aptamer research is still in its infancy, but it is progressing at a fast pace. The potential of aptamers may be realized in the near future in the form of aptamer-based diagnostic products in the market. In such products, aptamers may play a key role either in conjunction with, or in place of, antibodies. It is also likely that existing diagnostic formats may change according to the need to better harness the unique properties of aptamers.
TL;DR: A series of aptamers currently in development may change how nucleic acid therapeutics are perceived and will increasingly find use in concert with other therapeutic molecules and modalities.
Abstract: Nucleic acid aptamers can be selected from pools of random-sequence oligonucleotides to bind a wide range of biomedically relevant proteins with affinities and specificities that are comparable to antibodies. Aptamers exhibit significant advantages relative to protein therapeutics in terms of size, synthetic accessibility and modification by medicinal chemistry. Despite these properties, aptamers have been slow to reach the marketplace, with only one aptamer-based drug receiving approval so far. A series of aptamers currently in development may change how nucleic acid therapeutics are perceived. It is likely that in the future, aptamers will increasingly find use in concert with other therapeutic molecules and modalities.
TL;DR: Structures of aptamer complexes reveal the key molecular interactions conferring specificity to the aptamer-ligand association, including the precise stacking of flat moieties, specific hydrogen bonding, and molecular shape complementarity.
Abstract: Nucleic acid molecules play crucial roles in diverse biological processes including the storage, transport, processing, and expression of the genetic information. Nucleic acid aptamers are selected in vitro from libraries containing random sequences of up to a few hundred nucleotides. Selection is based on the ability to bind ligand molecules with high affinity and specificity. Three-dimensional structures have been determined at high resolution for a number of aptamers in complex with their cognate ligands. Structures of aptamer complexes reveal the key molecular interactions conferring specificity to the aptamer-ligand association, including the precise stacking of flat moieties, specific hydrogen bonding, and molecular shape complementarity. These basic principles of discriminatory molecular interactions in aptamer complexes parallel recognition events central to many cellular processes involving nucleic acids.
TL;DR: This proximity ligation assay detects zeptomole amounts of the cytokine platelet-derived growth factor without washes or separations, and the mechanism can be generalized to other forms of protein analysis.
Abstract: The advent of in vitro DNA amplification has enabled rapid acquisition of genomic information. We present here an analogous technique for protein detection, in which the coordinated and proximal binding of a target protein by two DNA aptamers promotes ligation of oligonucleotides linked to each aptamer affinity probe. The ligation of two such proximity probes gives rise to an amplifiable DNA sequence that reflects the identity and amount of the target protein. This proximity ligation assay detects zeptomole (40 x 10(-21) mol) amounts of the cytokine platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) without washes or separations, and the mechanism can be generalized to other forms of protein analysis.
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