About: Arabitol is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 388 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 8398 citation(s). The topic is also known as: D-(+)-Arabitol & D-arabitol.
Papers published on a yearly basis
01 Jan 2008-Atmospheric Environment
TL;DR: In this article, the authors derived quantitative relationships between the amounts of tracer compounds and the number of spores in the atmosphere for different sites in the area of Vienna and obtained over all average relationships of 1.2-2.4 with a clear site dependence.
Abstract: Fungal spores constitute a sizeable fraction of coarse organic carbon (OC) in the atmospheric aerosol. In order to avoid tedious spore count methods, tracers for quantifying the spore-OC in atmospheric aerosol are sought. Arabitol and mannitol have been proposed as such tracers, since no other emission sources for these compounds have been reported. By parallel investigations of spore counts and tracer determinations from PM 10 filter samples we could derive quantitative relationships between the amounts of tracer compounds and the numbers of spores in the atmosphere for different sites in the area of Vienna. We obtained over all average relationships of 1.2 pg arabitol spore −1 , with a range of 0.8–1.8, and 1.7 pg mannitol spore −1 , with a range of 1.2–2.4, with a clear site dependence. Thus, using these conversion factors from spore counts to spore-OC and spore-mass, along with analytical data for arabitol or mannitol in filter samples, the contribution of fungal spores to the OC and to the mass balance of atmospheric aerosol particles can be estimated.
01 Mar 2006-Atmospheric Environment
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors collected bulk aerosols from the Howland Experimental Forest in Maine from May to October 2002 and analyzed their TMS derivatives by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).
Abstract: Bulk aerosols (>1 μm) were collected continuously above the canopy at the Howland Experimental Forest, Maine, USA from May to October 2002. Each sample integrated over an approximately 2-week period. Mono- and disaccharide sugars were extracted using a microscale technique and were analyzed as their TMS derivatives by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Concentrations of total aerosol sugars ranged from 10 to 180 ng m −3 . Glucose was the most abundant sugar (40–75% of the total sugars). The monosaccharides arabinose, fructose, galactose, mannose, arabitol and mannitol, and the disaccharides sucrose, maltose and mycose (aka trehalose) were also present in lower concentrations. The sugar composition in the aerosols varied seasonally. Fructose and sucrose were prevalent in early spring and decreased in relative abundance as the growing season progressed. Sugar polyols (arabitol and mannitol) and the disaccharide mycose (a fungal metabolite) were more prevalent in autumn during the period of leaf senescence. The changes in the sugar composition in the aerosol samples appear to reflect the seasonality of sugar production and utilization by the ecosystem. Plant waxes were present as significant components also indicating an input from biogenic background. Smoke plumes from Quebec forest fires passed over the Howland site in early July 2002. Levoglucosan, a biomarker of biomass burning, increased by an order of magnitude in the aerosol samples collected during this time. Glucose, mannose, arabinose, galactose, and also, plant waxes increased in concentration by factors of 2–5 in the smoke-impacted samples, indicating that wildfires enhance atmospheric emissions of uncombusted organic compounds. In contrast, concentrations of fructose, sugar polyols and disaccharides were not significantly higher in the smoke-impacted samples and indicated that biomass burning was not a significant source of these compounds in the aerosols.
TL;DR: In this paper, levels of four sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, trehalose) and three sugar-alcohols (arabitol, inositol, mannitol) were quantified using a novel HPLC/HRMS-TOF (High Performance Liquid Chromatography in combination with High Resolution Mass Spectrometry - Time of Flight) method to assess the contribution of primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP) to PM>sub>10 and PM2.5.
Abstract: . Sugars and sugar-alcohols are demonstrated to be important constituents of the ambient aerosol water-soluble organic carbon fraction, and to be tracers for primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP). In the present study, levels of four sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, trehalose) and three sugar-alcohols (arabitol, inositol, mannitol) in ambient aerosols have been quantified using a novel HPLC/HRMS-TOF (High Performance Liquid Chromatography in combination with High Resolution Mass Spectrometry – Time of Flight) method to assess the contribution of PBAP to PM>sub>10 and PM2.5. Samples were collected at four sites in Norway at different times of the year in order to reflect the various contributing sources and the spatial and seasonal variation of the selected compounds. Sugars and sugar-alcohols were present at all sites investigated, underlining the ubiquity of these highly polar organic compounds. The highest concentrations were reported for sucrose, reaching a maximum concentration of 320 ng m−3 in PM10 and 55 ng m−3 in PM2.5. The mean concentration of sucrose was up to 10 times higher than fructose, glucose and the dimeric sugar trehalose. The mean concentrations of the sugar-alcohols were typically lower, or equal, to that of the monomeric sugars and trehalose. Peak concentrations of arabitol and mannitol did not exceed 30 ng m−3 in PM10, and for PM2.5 all concentrations were below 6 ng m−3. Sugars and sugar-alcohols were associated primarily with coarse aerosols except during wintertime at the suburban site in Elverum, where a shift towards sub micron aerosols was observed. It is proposed that this shift was due to the intensive use of wood burning for residential heating at this site during winter, confirmed by high concurrent concentrations of levoglucosan. Elevated concentrations of sugars in PM2.5 were observed during spring and early summer at the rural background site Birkenes. It is hypothesized that this was due to ruptured pollen.
10 Apr 2006-Microbial Cell Factories
TL;DR: This work demonstrates simultaneous co-utilization of xylose and arabinose in recombinant strains of S. cerevisiae, which significantly reduced formation of the by-product xylitol, which contributed to improved ethanol production.
Abstract: Background: Fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive alternative for the production of bioethanol. Traditionally, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used in industrial ethanol fermentations. However, S. cerevisiae is naturally not able to ferment the pentose sugars D-xylose and L-arabinose, which are present in high amounts in lignocellulosic raw materials. Results: We describe the engineering of laboratory and industrial S. cerevisiae strains to coferment the pentose sugars D-xylose and L-arabinose. Introduction of a fungal xylose and a bacterial arabinose pathway resulted in strains able to grow on both pentose sugars. Introduction of a xylose pathway into an arabinose-fermenting laboratory strain resulted in nearly complete conversion of arabinose into arabitol due to the L-arabinose reductase activity of the xylose reductase. The industrial strain displayed lower arabitol yield and increased ethanol yield from xylose and arabinose. Conclusion: Our work demonstrates simultaneous co-utilization of xylose and arabinose in recombinant strains of S. cerevisiae. In addition, the co-utilization of arabinose together with xylose significantly reduced formation of the by-product xylitol, which contributed to improved ethanol production.
01 Aug 1989-Microbiology
TL;DR: A mutant of Aspergillus niger unable to grow on d-xylose and l-arabinose has been isolated and genetic analysis revealed that the mutation is located on linkage group IV.
Abstract: SUMMARY: A mutant of Aspergillus niger unable to grow on d-xylose and l-arabinose has been isolated. Genetic analysis revealed that the mutation is located on linkage group IV. Enzymic analysis revealed a deficiency in d-xylulose kinase activity. After transfer of growing mycelium to a medium containing either d-xylose or l-arabinose, the mutant accumulates large amounts of arabitol and xylitol, as shown by 13C NMR spectroscopy. These data and an analysis of enzyme activities induced by d-xylose and l-arabinose in the wild-type strain led to the following catabolic pathway for d-xylose: d-xylose - xylitol - d-xylulose - d-xylulose 5-phosphate; and for l-arabinose: l-arabinose - l-arabitol - l-xylulose - xylitol - d-xylulose - d-xylulose 5-phosphate. The reduction steps of the sugars to the corresponding polyols are all NADPH dependent. The oxidation steps of the polyols to the sugars are all NAD+ dependent. Fractionation of cell-free extracts gave information about the specificity of the enzymes and showed that all the reactions are catalysed by different enzymes.
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