Topic

# Arrhenius equation

About: Arrhenius equation is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 11815 publications have been published within this topic receiving 260220 citations.

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TL;DR: An empirical equation is presented which yields an unbiased estimator of respiration rates over a wide range of temperatures and provides representative estimates of the seasonal cycle of net ecosystem productivity and its effects on atmospheric CO 2.

Abstract: From previously published measurements of soil respiration rate (R) and temperature (T) the goodness of fit of various R vs T relationships was evaluated. Exponential (Q 10 ) and conventional Arrhenius relationships between T and R cannot provide an unbiased estimate of respiration rate. Nor is a simple linear relationship appropriate. The relationship between R and T can, however, be accurately represented by an Arrhenius type equation where the effective activation energy for respiration varies inversely with temperature. An empirical equation is presented which yields an unbiased estimator of respiration rates over a wide range of temperatures. When combined with seasonal estimates of Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) the empirical relationship derived provides representative estimates of the seasonal cycle of net ecosystem productivity and its effects on atmospheric CO 2 (...)

3,344 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a detailed analysis of the thermal expansion mechanism of graphite oxide to produce functionalized graphene sheets is provided, where it is shown that the decomposition rate of the epoxy and hydroxyl sites exceeds the diffusion rate of evolved gases, yielding pressures that exceed the van der Waals forces holding the graphene sheets together.

Abstract: A detailed analysis of the thermal expansion mechanism of graphite oxide to produce functionalized graphene sheets is provided. Exfoliation takes place when the decomposition rate of the epoxy and hydroxyl sites of graphite oxide exceeds the diffusion rate of the evolved gases, thus yielding pressures that exceed the van der Waals forces holding the graphene sheets together. A comparison of the Arrhenius dependence of the reaction rate against the calculated diffusion coefficient based on Knudsen diffusion suggests a critical temperature of 550 °C which must be exceeded for exfoliation to occur. As a result of their wrinkled nature, the functionalized and defective graphene sheets do not collapse back to graphite oxide but are highly agglomerated. After dispersion by ultrasonication in appropriate solvents, statistical analysis by atomic force microscopy shows that 80% of the observed flakes are single sheets.

3,151 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, it was shown that an effective mass which depends on the direction of the path through the saddle point in configuration space determines the Arrhenius expression's effective frequency.

Abstract: The movement of defects in solids on the basis of classical absolute rate theory is reexamined with special attention to many-body aspects. The effective frequency in the Arrhenius expression governing these processes is shown to be, in harmonic approximation, the ratio of the product of the N normal frequencies of the entire crystal at the starting point of a transition to the product of the N −1 normal frequencies of the crystal when it is constrained in a saddle point configuration. The influence of the masses of the various atoms on the effective frequency is investigated. It is shown that an effective mass which depends on the direction of the path through the saddle point in configuration space determines this frequency. In the case of chemical diffusion by the vacancy mechanism the effective mass is approximately the same as the mass of the solute atom, and must always lie between the mass of the solute and the mass of the solvent. It is finally shown that the classical rate theory, even with many-body considerations, is unable to explain the recent observations of L azarus and O kkerse on the isotope effect in the diffusion of iron in silver.

1,611 citations

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TL;DR: A linear relationship between in square root of growth rate constant (r) and temperature (T), namely, square root = b (T - T0), where b is the regression coefficient and T0 is a hypothetical temperature which is an intrinsic property of the organism.

Abstract: The Arrhenius Law, which was originally proposed to describe the temperature dependence of the specific reaction rate constant in chemical reactions, does not adequately describe the effect of temperature on bacterial growth. Microbiologists have attempted to apply a modified version of this law to bacterial growth by replacing the reaction rate constant by the growth rate constant, but the modified law relationship fits data poorly, as graphs of the logarithm of the growth rate constant against reciprocal absolute temperature result in curves rather than straight lines. Instead, a linear relationship between in square root of growth rate constant (r) and temperature (T), namely, square root = b (T - T0), where b is the regression coefficient and T0 is a hypothetical temperature which is an intrinsic property of the organism, is proposed and found to apply to the growth of a wide range of bacteria. The relationship is also applicable to nucleotide breakdown and to the growth of yeast and molds.

1,120 citations

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TL;DR: Lateral diffusion measurements of L-alpha-dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayers supported on oxidized silicon wafers reveal two sharp phase transitions at temperatures similar to those found in multilayer systems with several different techniques.

Abstract: Phospholipid bilayers have been formed on glass, quartz, and silicon surfaces by a sequential transfer of two monolayers at a pressure of approximately 40 dyn/cm from the air-water interface to the solid substrates. Lateral diffusion measurements of L-alpha-dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayers supported on oxidized silicon wafers reveal two sharp phase transitions at temperatures similar to those found in multilayer systems with several different techniques. The diffusion measurements obtained using fluorescence recovery after pattern photobleaching provide evidence for the existence of an intermediate (probably P beta' or ripple) phase in single bilayers. While in the intermediate and high temperature (liquid-crystalline L alpha) phase, the diffusion coefficients do not vary very much with temperature, a strong temperature dependence is observed in the low temperature (gel L beta') phase. This is attributed to defect-mediated diffusion. Lipids in silicon supported bilayers made from L-alpha-dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) or L-alpha-dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) diffuse rapidly above their respective chain-melting transition temperatures. Arrhenius plots show straight lines with activation energies of 40.9 and 43.7 kJ/mol, respectively. Supported DPPC bilayers on oxidized silicon form long tubular liposomes when heated through their oxidized silicon form long tubular liposomes when heated through their chain-melting-phase transition, as viewed with epifluorescence microscopy. It is suggested that this is a consequence of the expansion of the lipid on the fixed solid support. Conversely, DOPC bilayers form large void areas on this substrate upon cooling. Large circular membrane defects (holes) are observed under rapid coating conditions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

1,096 citations