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Arsenate reductase

About: Arsenate reductase is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 388 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 20992 citation(s). more


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.1081903
Ronald S. Oremland1, John F. Stolz2Institutions (2)
09 May 2003-Science
Abstract: Arsenic is a metalloid whose name conjures up images of murder. Nonetheless, certain prokaryotes use arsenic oxyanions for energy generation, either by oxidizing arsenite or by respiring arsenate. These microbes are phylogenetically diverse and occur in a wide range of habitats. Arsenic cycling may take place in the absence of oxygen and can contribute to organic matter oxidation. In aquifers, these microbial reactions may mobilize arsenic from the solid to the aqueous phase, resulting in contaminated drinking water. Here we review what is known about arsenic-metabolizing bacteria and their potential impact on speciation and mobilization of arsenic in nature. more

Topics: Arsenic (62%), Arsenate (58%), Arsenate-reducing bacteria (57%) more

1,234 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/J.1469-8137.2008.02716.X
01 Mar 2009-New Phytologist
Abstract: Arsenic (As) is an element that is nonessential for and toxic to plants. Arsenic contamination in the environment occurs in many regions, and, depending on environmental factors, its accumulation in food crops may pose a health risk to humans.Recent progress in understanding the mechanisms of As uptake and metabolism in plants is reviewed here. Arsenate is taken up by phosphate transporters. A number of the aquaporin nodulin26-like intrinsic proteins (NIPs) are able to transport arsenite,the predominant form of As in reducing environments. In rice (Oryza sativa), arsenite uptake shares the highly efficient silicon (Si) pathway of entry to root cells and efflux towards the xylem. In root cells arsenate is rapidly reduced to arsenite, which is effluxed to the external medium, complexed by thiol peptides or translocated to shoots. One type of arsenate reductase has been identified, but its in planta functions remain to be investigated. Some fern species in the Pteridaceae family are able to hyperaccumulate As in above-ground tissues. Hyperaccumulation appears to involve enhanced arsenate uptake, decreased arsenite-thiol complexation and arsenite efflux to the external medium, greatly enhanced xylem translocation of arsenite, and vacuolar sequestration of arsenite in fronds. Current knowledge gaps and future research directions are also identified. more

Topics: Arsenite (67%), Arsenate reductase (65%), Arsenate (58%) more

893 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0014-5793(02)03186-1
Barry P. Rosen1Institutions (1)
02 Oct 2002-FEBS Letters
Abstract: All living organisms have systems for arsenic detoxification. The common themes are (a) uptake of As(V) in the form of arsenate by phosphate transporters, (b) uptake of As(III) in the form of arsenite by aquaglyceroporins, (c) reduction of As(V) to As(III) by arsenate reductases, and (d) extrusion or sequestration of As(III). While the overall schemes for arsenic resistance are similar in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, some of the specific proteins are the products of separate evolutionary pathways. more

Topics: Arsenate reductase activity (63%), Arsenate reductase (63%), Arsenate (61%) more

666 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/J.1574-6976.2002.TB00617.X
Abstract: Arsenic compounds have been abundant at near toxic levels in the environment since the origin of life. In response, microbes have evolved mechanisms for arsenic resistance and enzymes that oxidize As(III) to As(V) or reduce As(V) to As(III). Formation and degradation of organoarsenicals, for example methylarsenic compounds, occur. There is a global arsenic geocycle, where microbial metabolism and mobilization (or immobilization) are important processes. Recent progress in studies of the ars operon (conferring resistance to As(III) and As(V)) in many bacterial types (and related systems in Archaea and yeast) and new understanding of arsenite oxidation and arsenate reduction by respiratory-chain-linked enzyme complexes has been substantial. The DNA sequencing and protein crystal structures have established the convergent evolution of three classes of arsenate reductases (that is classes of arsenate reductases are not of common evolutionary origin). Proposed reaction mechanisms in each case involve three cysteine thiols and S–As bond intermediates, so convergent evolution to similar mechanisms has taken place. more

Topics: Arsenate reductase (63%), Arsenate (60%), Ars operon (60%) more

614 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1146/ANNUREV.MICRO.60.080805.142053
Abstract: Arsenic and selenium are readily metabolized by prokaryotes, par- ticipating in a full range of metabolic functions including as- similation, methylation, detoxification, and anaerobic respiration. Arsenic speciation and mobility is affected by microbes through oxidation/reduction reactions as part of resistance and respiratory processes. A robust arsenic cycle has been demonstrated in diverse environments. Respiratory arsenate reductases, arsenic methyltrans- ferases, and new components in arsenic resistance have been recently described. The requirement for selenium stems primarily from its in- corporation into selenocysteine and its function in selenoenzymes. Selenium oxyanions can serve as an electron acceptor in anaero- bic respiration, forming distinct nanoparticles of elemental selenium that may be enriched in 76 Se. The biogenesis of selenoproteins has been elucidated, and selenium methyltransferases and a respiratory selenate reductase have also been described. This review highlights recent advances in ecology, biochemistry, and molecular biology and provides a prelude to the impact of genomics studies. more

Topics: Arsenic biochemistry (62%), Selenium (56%), Arsenic (56%) more

521 Citations

No. of papers in the topic in previous years

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Barry P. Rosen

24 papers, 3.8K citations

Joris Messens

13 papers, 470 citations

John F. Stolz

12 papers, 2.3K citations

Karolien Van Belle

9 papers, 325 citations

Elke Brosens

8 papers, 181 citations

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