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Arsenic

About: Arsenic is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 24209 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 633999 citation(s). The topic is also known as: As & element 33.

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Journal ArticleDOI
Dinesh Mohan1, Charles U. Pittman1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: Strong acids and bases seem to be the best desorbing agents to produce arsenic concentrates, and some commercial adsorbents which include resins, gels, silica, treated silica tested for arsenic removal come out to be superior.

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Abstract: Arsenic's history in science, medicine and technology has been overshadowed by its notoriety as a poison in homicides. Arsenic is viewed as being synonymous with toxicity. Dangerous arsenic concentrations in natural waters is now a worldwide problem and often referred to as a 20th-21st century calamity. High arsenic concentrations have been reported recently from the USA, China, Chile, Bangladesh, Taiwan, Mexico, Argentina, Poland, Canada, Hungary, Japan and India. Among 21 countries in different parts of the world affected by groundwater arsenic contamination, the largest population at risk is in Bangladesh followed by West Bengal in India. Existing overviews of arsenic removal include technologies that have traditionally been used (oxidation, precipitation/coagulation/membrane separation) with far less attention paid to adsorption. No previous review is available where readers can get an overview of the sorption capacities of both available and developed sorbents used for arsenic remediation together with the traditional remediation methods. We have incorporated most of the valuable available literature on arsenic remediation by adsorption ( approximately 600 references). Existing purification methods for drinking water; wastewater; industrial effluents, and technological solutions for arsenic have been listed. Arsenic sorption by commercially available carbons and other low-cost adsorbents are surveyed and critically reviewed and their sorption efficiencies are compared. Arsenic adsorption behavior in presence of other impurities has been discussed. Some commercially available adsorbents are also surveyed. An extensive table summarizes the sorption capacities of various adsorbents. Some low-cost adsorbents are superior including treated slags, carbons developed from agricultural waste (char carbons and coconut husk carbons), biosorbents (immobilized biomass, orange juice residue), goethite and some commercial adsorbents, which include resins, gels, silica, treated silica tested for arsenic removal come out to be superior. Immobilized biomass adsorbents offered outstanding performances. Desorption of arsenic followed by regeneration of sorbents has been discussed. Strong acids and bases seem to be the best desorbing agents to produce arsenic concentrates. Arsenic concentrate treatment and disposal obtained is briefly addressed. This issue is very important but much less discussed.

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2,842 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Badal Kumar Mandal1, Kazuo T. Suzuki1Institutions (1)
16 Aug 2002-Talanta
TL;DR: This review deals with environmental origin, occurrence, episodes, and impact on human health of arsenic, a metalloid occurs naturally, being the 20th most abundant element in the earth's crust.

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Abstract: This review deals with environmental origin, occurrence, episodes, and impact on human health of arsenic. Arsenic, a metalloid occurs naturally, being the 20th most abundant element in the earth's crust, and is a component of more than 245 minerals. These are mostly ores containing sulfide, along with copper, nickel, lead, cobalt, or other metals. Arsenic and its compounds are mobile in the environment. Weathering of rocks converts arsenic sulfides to arsenic trioxide, which enters the arsenic cycle as dust or by dissolution in rain, rivers, or groundwater. So, groundwater contamination by arsenic is a serious threat to mankind all over the world. It can also enter food chain causing wide spread distribution throughout the plant and animal kingdoms. However, fish, fruits, and vegetables primarily contain organic arsenic, less than 10% of the arsenic in these foods exists in the inorganic form, although the arsenic content of many foods (i.e. milk and dairy products, beef and pork, poultry, and cereals) is mainly inorganic, typically 65-75%. A few recent studies report 85-95% inorganic arsenic in rice and vegetables, which suggest more studies for standardisation. Humans are exposed to this toxic arsenic primarily from air, food, and water. Thousands and thousands of people are suffering from the toxic effects of arsenicals in many countries all over the world due to natural groundwater contamination as well as industrial effluent and drainage problems. Arsenic, being a normal component of human body is transported by the blood to different organs in the body, mainly in the form of MMA after ingestion. It causes a variety of adverse health effects to humans after acute and chronic exposures such as dermal changes (pigmentation, hyperkeratoses, and ulceration), respiratory, pulmonary, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, hematological, hepatic, renal, neurological, developmental, reproductive, immunologic, genotoxic, mutagenetic, and carcinogenic effects. Key research studies are needed for improving arsenic risk assessment at low exposure levels urgently among all the arsenic research groups.

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2,836 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 1989-Chemical Reviews

2,387 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Suvasis Dixit1, Janet G. Hering1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: The sorption data indicate that, under most of the chemical conditions investigated in this study, reduction of As(V) in the presence of HFO or goethite would have only minor effects on or even decrease its mobility in the environment at near-neutral pH conditions.

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Abstract: Arsenic derived from natural sources occurs in groundwater in many countries, affecting the health of millions of people. The combined effects of As(V) reduction and diagenesis of iron oxide minerals on arsenic mobility are investigated in this study by comparing As(V) and As(III) sorption onto amorphous iron oxide (HFO), goethite, and magnetite at varying solution compositions. Experimental data are modeled with a diffuse double layer surface complexation model, and the extracted model parameters are used to examine the consistency of our results with those previously reported. Sorption of As(V) onto HFO and goethite is more favorable than that of As(III) below pH 5−6, whereas, above pH 7−8, As(III) has a higher affinity for the solids. The pH at which As(V) and As(III) are equally sorbed depends on the solid-to-solution ratio and type and specific surface area of the minerals and is shifted to lower pH values in the presence of phosphate, which competes for sorption sites. The sorption data indicate tha...

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1,923 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The experience in Bangladesh shows that groundwater sources throughout the world that are used for drinking-water should be tested for arsenic, and the fundamental intervention is the identification and provision of arsenic-free drinking water.

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Abstract: The contamination of groundwater by arsenic in Bangladesh is the largest poisoning of a population in history, with millions of people exposed. This paper describes the history of the discovery of arsenic in drinking-water in Bangladesh and recommends intervention strategies. Tube-wells were installed to provide ‘‘pure water’’ to prevent morbidity and mortality from gastrointestinal disease. The water from the millions of tube-wells that were installed was not tested for arsenic contamination. Studies in other countries where the population has had long-term exposure to arsenic in groundwater indicate that 1 in 10 people who drink water containing 500mg of arsenic per litre may ultimately die from cancers caused by arsenic, including lung, bladder and skin cancers. The rapid allocation of funding and prompt expansion of current interventions to address this contamination should be facilitated. The fundamental intervention is the identification and provision of arsenic-free drinking water. Arsenic is rapidly excreted in urine, and for early or mild cases, no specific treatment is required. Community education and participation are essential to ensure that interventions are successful; these should be coupled with follow-up monitoring to confirm that exposure has ended. Taken together with the discovery of arsenic in groundwater in other countries, the experience in Bangladesh shows that groundwater sources throughout the world that are used for drinking-water should be tested for arsenic.

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1,860 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202240
2021821
2020886
20191,069
2018952
2017980

Top Attributes

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Andrew A. Meharg

97 papers, 14K citations

Walter Goessler

78 papers, 3.8K citations

Kevin A. Francesconi

72 papers, 4.2K citations

Marie Vahter

67 papers, 6.6K citations

William A. Maher

46 papers, 1.9K citations