About: Arsenic toxicity is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 1695 publications have been published within this topic receiving 82440 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: A better understanding of the mechanism(s) of action) of arsenic will make a more confident determination of the risks associated with exposure to this chemical.
Abstract: Exposure to the metalloid arsenic is a daily occurrence because of its environmental pervasiveness. Arsenic, which is found in several different chemical forms and oxidation states, causes acute and chronic adverse health effects, including cancer. The metabolism of arsenic has an important role in its toxicity. The metabolism involves reduction to a trivalent state and oxidative methylation to a pentavalent state. The trivalent arsenicals, including those methylated, have more potent toxic properties than the pentavalent arsenicals. The exact mechanism of the action of arsenic is not known, but several hypotheses have been proposed. At a biochemical level, inorganic arsenic in the pentavalent state may replace phosphate in several reactions. In the trivalent state, inorganic and organic (methylated) arsenic may react with critical thiols in proteins and inhibit their activity. Regarding cancer, potential mechanisms include genotoxicity, altered DNA methylation, oxidative stress, altered cell proliferation, co-carcinogenesis, and tumor promotion. A better understanding of the mechanism(s) of action of arsenic will make a more confident determination of the risks associated with exposure to this chemical.
TL;DR: In this paper, the role of antioxidant defence systems against arsenic toxicity is discussed, and the role role of vitamin C (ascorbic acid), vitamin E (α-tocopherol), curcumin, glutathione and antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase in their protective roles against arsenic-induced oxidative stress is also discussed.
Abstract: Arsenic (As) is a toxic metalloid element that is present in air, water and soil. Inorganic arsenic tends to be more toxic than organic arsenic. Examples of methylated organic arsenicals include monomethylarsonic acid [MMA(V)] and dimethylarsinic acid [DMA(V)]. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated oxidative damage is a common denominator in arsenic pathogenesis. In addition, arsenic induces morphological changes in the integrity of mitochondria. Cascade mechanisms of free radical formation derived from the superoxide radical, combined with glutathione-depleting agents, increase the sensitivity of cells to arsenic toxicity. When both humans and animals are exposed to arsenic, they experience an increased formation of ROS/RNS, including peroxyl radicals (ROO•), the superoxide radical, singlet oxygen, hydroxyl radical (OH•) via the Fenton reaction, hydrogen peroxide, the dimethylarsenic radical, the dimethylarsenic peroxyl radical and/or oxidant-induced DNA damage. Arsenic induces the formation of oxidized lipids which in turn generate several bioactive molecules (ROS, peroxides and isoprostanes), of which aldehydes [malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxy-nonenal (HNE)] are the major end products. This review discusses aspects of chronic and acute exposures of arsenic in the etiology of cancer, cardiovascular disease (hypertension and atherosclerosis), neurological disorders, gastrointestinal disturbances, liver disease and renal disease, reproductive health effects, dermal changes and other health disorders. The role of antioxidant defence systems against arsenic toxicity is also discussed. Consideration is given to the role of vitamin C (ascorbic acid), vitamin E (α-tocopherol), curcumin, glutathione and antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in their protective roles against arsenic-induced oxidative stress.
TL;DR: Testing foods and drinking water for arsenic, including individual private wells, should be a top priority to reduce exposure, particularly for pregnant women and children, given the potential for life-long effects of developmental exposure.
Abstract: Background: Concerns for arsenic exposure are not limited to toxic waste sites and massive poisoning events. Chronic exposure continues to be a major public health problem worldwide, affecting hundreds of millions of persons. Objectives: We reviewed recent information on worldwide concerns for arsenic exposures and public health to heighten awareness of the current scope of arsenic exposure and health outcomes and the importance of reducing exposure, particularly during pregnancy and early life. Methods: We synthesized the large body of current research pertaining to arsenic exposure and health outcomes with an emphasis on recent publications. Discussion: Locations of high arsenic exposure via drinking water span from Bangladesh, Chile, and Taiwan to the United States. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level (MCL) in drinking water is 10 µg/L; however, concentrations of > 3,000 µg/L have been found in wells in the United States. In addition, exposure through diet is of growing concern. Knowledge of the scope of arsenic-associated health effects has broadened; arsenic leaves essentially no bodily system untouched. Arsenic is a known carcinogen associated with skin, lung, bladder, kidney, and liver cancer. Dermatological, developmental, neurological, respiratory, cardiovascular, immunological, and endocrine effects are also evident. Most remarkably, early-life exposure may be related to increased risks for several types of cancer and other diseases during adulthood. Conclusions: These data call for heightened awareness of arsenic-related pathologies in broader contexts than previously perceived. Testing foods and drinking water for arsenic, including individual private wells, should be a top priority to reduce exposure, particularly for pregnant women and children, given the potential for life-long effects of developmental exposure.
TL;DR: A range of mitigation methods, from agronomic measures and plant breeding to genetic modification, may be employed to reduce As uptake by food crops.
Abstract: Arsenic (As) is an environmental and food chain contaminant. Excessive accumulation of As, particularly inorganic arsenic (As(i)), in rice (Oryza sativa) poses a potential health risk to populations with high rice consumption. Rice is efficient at As accumulation owing to flooded paddy cultivation that leads to arsenite mobilization, and the inadvertent yet efficient uptake of arsenite through the silicon transport pathway. Iron, phosphorus, sulfur, and silicon interact strongly with As during its route from soil to plants. Plants take up arsenate through the phosphate transporters, and arsenite and undissociated methylated As species through the nodulin 26-like intrinsic (NIP) aquaporin channels. Arsenate is readily reduced to arsenite in planta, which is detoxified by complexation with thiol-rich peptides such as phytochelatins and/or vacuolar sequestration. A range of mitigation methods, from agronomic measures and plant breeding to genetic modification, may be employed to reduce As uptake by food crops.
TL;DR: The number of different arsenic species found in environmental samples and an understanding of the transformations between arsenic species has increased over the past few decades as a result of new and refined analytical methods.
Abstract: This paper reviews the current knowledge on the toxicity, speciation and biogeochemistry of arsenic in aquatic environmental systems. The toxicity of arsenic is highly dependent on the chemical speciation. The effects of pH, E(h), adsorbing surfaces, biological mediation, organic matter, and key inorganic substances such as sulfide and phosphate combine in a complex and interwoven dynamic fashion to produce unique assemblages of arsenic species. The number of different arsenic species found in environmental samples and an understanding of the transformations between arsenic species has increased over the past few decades as a result of new and refined analytical methods. Changes in arsenic speciation and in total arsenic content of foods upon processing have suggested possible risks associated with processed and unprocessed food. Arsenic removal from water using adsorbents, chemical oxidation, photolysis and photocatalytic oxidation techniques is also reviewed.
Trending Questions (10)
Related Topics (5)