About: Arsenite is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 4557 publications have been published within this topic receiving 214634 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors compared the adsorption behavior of arsenite and arsenate on ferrihydrite, under carefully controlled conditions, with regard to adaption kinetics and the influence of pH.
Abstract: Because of its toxicity, arsenic is of considerable environmental concern. Its solubility in natural systems is strongly influenced by adsorption at iron oxide surfaces. The objective of this study was to compare the adsorption behavior of arsenite and arsenate on ferrihydrite, under carefully controlled conditions, with regard to adsorption kinetics, adsorption isotherms, and the influence of pH on adsorption. The adsorption reactions were relatively fast, with the reactions almost completed within the first few hours. At relatively high As concentrations, arsenite reacted faster than arsenate with the ferrihydrite, i.e., equilibrium was achieved sooner, but arsenate adsorption was faster at low As concentrations and low pH. Adsorp tion maxima of approximately 0.60 (0.58) and 0.25 (0.16) molAs molFe-1 were achieved for arsenite and arsenate, respectively, at pH 4.6 (pH 9.2 in parentheses). The high arsenite retention, which precludes its retention entirely as surface adsorbed species, indicates the likel...
TL;DR: This work reviews what is known about arsenic-metabolizing bacteria and their potential impact on speciation and mobilization of arsenic in nature and investigates their role in aquifers.
Abstract: Arsenic is a metalloid whose name conjures up images of murder. Nonetheless, certain prokaryotes use arsenic oxyanions for energy generation, either by oxidizing arsenite or by respiring arsenate. These microbes are phylogenetically diverse and occur in a wide range of habitats. Arsenic cycling may take place in the absence of oxygen and can contribute to organic matter oxidation. In aquifers, these microbial reactions may mobilize arsenic from the solid to the aqueous phase, resulting in contaminated drinking water. Here we review what is known about arsenic-metabolizing bacteria and their potential impact on speciation and mobilization of arsenic in nature.
TL;DR: It is reported that two different types of transporters mediate transport of arsenite, the predominant form of arsenic in paddy soil, from the external medium to the xylem, which explains why rice is efficient in arsenic accumulation.
Abstract: Arsenic poisoning affects millions of people worldwide. Human arsenic intake from rice consumption can be substantial because rice is particularly efficient in assimilating arsenic from paddy soils, although the mechanism has not been elucidated. Here we report that two different types of transporters mediate transport of arsenite, the predominant form of arsenic in paddy soil, from the external medium to the xylem. Transporters belonging to the NIP subfamily of aquaporins in rice are permeable to arsenite but not to arsenate. Mutation in OsNIP2;1 (Lsi1, a silicon influx transporter) significantly decreases arsenite uptake. Furthermore, in the rice mutants defective in the silicon efflux transporter Lsi2, arsenite transport to the xylem and accumulation in shoots and grain decreased greatly. Mutation in Lsi2 had a much greater impact on arsenic accumulation in shoots and grain in field-grown rice than Lsi1. Arsenite transport in rice roots therefore shares the same highly efficient pathway as silicon, which explains why rice is efficient in arsenic accumulation. Our results provide insight into the uptake mechanism of arsenite in rice and strategies for reducing arsenic accumulation in grain for enhanced food safety.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors measured the adsorption isotherms in solutions with ionic strengths of 0.01 at 25°C and measured over the arsenite and arsenate concentration range 10−7−10−3 M and the pH range 4−10.
Abstract: Adsorption isotherms in solutions with ionic strengths of 0.01 at 25°C were measured over the arsenite and arsenate concentration range 10−7−10−3 M and the pH range 4–10. At low concentrations, these isotherms obeyed equations of the Langmuir type. At higher concentrations the adsorption isotherms were linear, indicating the existence of more than one type of surface site on the amorphous iron hydroxide adsorbent. Removal of arsenite and arsenate by amorphous iron hydroxide throughout the concentration range were determined as a function of pH. By careful selection of the relative concentration of arsenic and amorphous iron hydroxide and pH, removals on the order of 92% can be achieved.
TL;DR: A range of mitigation methods, from agronomic measures and plant breeding to genetic modification, may be employed to reduce As uptake by food crops.
Abstract: Arsenic (As) is an environmental and food chain contaminant. Excessive accumulation of As, particularly inorganic arsenic (As(i)), in rice (Oryza sativa) poses a potential health risk to populations with high rice consumption. Rice is efficient at As accumulation owing to flooded paddy cultivation that leads to arsenite mobilization, and the inadvertent yet efficient uptake of arsenite through the silicon transport pathway. Iron, phosphorus, sulfur, and silicon interact strongly with As during its route from soil to plants. Plants take up arsenate through the phosphate transporters, and arsenite and undissociated methylated As species through the nodulin 26-like intrinsic (NIP) aquaporin channels. Arsenate is readily reduced to arsenite in planta, which is detoxified by complexation with thiol-rich peptides such as phytochelatins and/or vacuolar sequestration. A range of mitigation methods, from agronomic measures and plant breeding to genetic modification, may be employed to reduce As uptake by food crops.
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