About: Aster amellus is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 38 publications have been published within this topic receiving 920 citations. The topic is also known as: garden aster.
TL;DR: Overall surveillance suggests that the use of garden ornamental plants on the ridges of constructed wetland for the treatment of dyes from wastewater along with the consortia of soil microbial flora is a wise and aesthetically pleasant strategy.
Abstract: In situ phytoremediation of dyes from textile wastewater was carried out in a high rate transpiration system ridges (91.4 m × 1.0 m) cultivated independently with Tagetes patula, Aster amellus, Portulaca grandiflora and Gaillardia grandiflora which reduced American Dye Manufacturers Institute color value by 59, 50, 46 and 73%, respectively within 30 d compared to dye accumulated in unplanted ridges. Significant increase in microbial count and electric conductivity of soil was observed during phytoremediation. Reduction in the contents of macro (N, P, K and C), micro (B, Cu, Fe and Mn) elements and heavy metals (Cd, As, Pb and Cr) was observed in the soil from planted ridges due to phyto-treatment. Root tissues of these plants showed significant increase in the specific activities of oxido-reductive enzymes such as lignin peroxidase, laccase, veratryl alcohol oxidase, tyrosinase and azo reductase during decolorization of textile dyes from soil. Anatomical studies of plants roots revealed the occurrence of textile dyes in tissues and subsequent degradation. A minor decrease in plant growth was also observed. Overall surveillance suggests that the use of garden ornamental plants on the ridges of constructed wetland for the treatment of dyes from wastewater along with the consortia of soil microbial flora is a wise and aesthetically pleasant strategy.
TL;DR: It is concluded that transfer of seeds is a more appropriate technique than transfer of adult plants in conservation practice because it more likely prevents non-adapted genotypes from establishing.
Abstract: Transferring plants between populations of rare species has often been proposed to increase population size and replenish genetic variation. While this approach has many advantages, it may also disrupt local adaptation. However, the scale over which plants adapt to local conditions is hard to predict. To detect local adaptation, we conducted reciprocal transplant experiments in the field with six populations of the rare perennial herb, Aster amellus. We sowed seeds in 2003 and 2004 (called ‘Experiment 2003’ and ‘Experiment 2004’) and transplanted adult plants in 2004. We evaluated genetic differences between populations and ecological differences between habitats and tested which differences explain the degree of local adaptation. The number of juveniles from the local populations was 68% and 42% higher than the number of juveniles from the foreign populations in ‘Experiment 2003’ and ‘Experiment 2004’, respectively, indicating local adaptation. However, not all populations of A. amellus adapted to their local conditions. Differences in local climate and in vegetation composition particularly affected local adaptation. In contrast to transplanted seeds, transplanted adult plants from local populations did not overall perform better than plants from foreign populations. We conclude that transfer of seeds is a more appropriate technique than transfer of adult plants in conservation practice because it more likely prevents non-adapted genotypes from establishing. Material for the transfers should come, not necessarily from the closest, but rather from ecologically similar habitats.
TL;DR: Toxicity study revealed the phytotransformation of RR into non-toxic products and indicated that the plant can be used for cleaning textile effluent.
Abstract: Phytoremediation is a novel and promising approach for the treatment of pollutants. This study did explore the potential of Aster amellus Linn. to decolorize a sulfonated azo dye Remazol Red (RR), a mixture of dyes and a textile effluent. Induction in the activities of lignin peroxidase, tyrosinase, veratryl alcohol oxidase and riboflavin reductase was observed during RR decolorization, suggesting their involvement in the metabolism of RR. UV-Visible absorption spectrum, HPLC and FTIR analysis confirmed the degradation of RR. Four metabolites after the degradation of the dye were identified as 2-[(3-diazenylphenyl) sulfonyl] ethanesulfonate, 4-amino-5-hydroxynaphthalene-2,7-disulfonate, naphthalene-2-sulfonate and 3-(1,3,5-triazin-2-ylamino)benzenesulfonate by using GC/MS. Textile effluent and mixture of dyes showed 47% and 62% decrease respectively in American Dye Manufacturers Institute value. BOD of textile effluent and mixture of dyes were reduced by 75% and 48% respectively, COD of industrial effluent and mixture of dyes was reduced by 60% and 75% and TOC was reduced by 54% and 69% respectively after the treatment by A. amellus for 60 h; this indicated that the plant can be used for cleaning textile effluents. Toxicity study revealed the phytotransformation of RR into non-toxic products.
TL;DR: Two different sets of induced enzymes from A. amellus and G. pulchella work together in consortium-AG resulting in faster degradation of the dye, revealing the non-toxic nature of the metabolites of Remazol Orange 3R degradation was revealed by phytotoxicity studies.
Abstract: Plant consortium-AG of Aster amellus Linn. and Glandularia pulchella (Sweet) Tronc. showed complete decolorization of a dye Remazol Orange 3R in 36 h, while individually A. amellus and G. pulchella took 72 and 96 h respectively. Individually A. amellus showed induction in the activities of enzymes veratryl alcohol oxidase and DCIP reductase after degradation of the dye while G. pulchella showed induction of laccase and tyrosinase, indicating their involvement in the dye metabolism. Consortium-AG showed induction in the activities of lignin peroxidase, veratryl alcohol oxidase, laccase, tyrosinase and DCIP reductase. Two different sets of induced enzymes from A. amellus and G. pulchella work together in consortium-AG resulting in faster degradation of the dye. The degradation of the dye into different metabolites was confirmed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy. Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy analysis identified four metabolites of dye degradation by A. amellus as acetamide, benzene, naphthalene and 3-diazenylnaphthalene-2-sulfonic acid, four metabolites by G. pulchella as acetamide, 3-diazenyl-4-hydroxynaphthalene-2-sulfonic acid, naphthalen-1-ol and (ethylsulfonyl)benzene, while two metabolites by consortium-AG as 2-(phenylsulfonyl)ethanol and N-(naphthalen-2-yl)acetamide. The non-toxic nature of the metabolites of Remazol Orange 3R degradation was revealed by phytotoxicity studies.
TL;DR: It is concluded that niche differentiation between the two cytotypes and local adaptation within each cytotype may contribute to the maintenance of diploid and hexaploid populations of A. amellus in their contact zone.
Abstract: The maintenance of separated diploid and polyploid populations within a contact zone is possible due to both prezygotic and postzygotic isolation mechanisms. Niche differentiation between two cytotypes may be an important prezygotic isolating mechanism and can be studied using reciprocal transplant experiments. We investigated niche differentiation between diploid and hexaploid Aster amellus in their contact zone in the Czech Republic. Diploid populations are confined to habitats with low productivity, whereas hexaploid populations occur in habitats with both low and high productivity. Thus, we chose three diploid populations and six hexaploid populations, three in each of the two different habitat types. We analyzed habitat characteristics and carried out reciprocal transplant experiments in the field using both seeds and adult plants. Sites of diploid and hexaploid populations differed significantly in vegetation and soil properties. The mean number of juveniles was higher at sites of home ploidy level than at sites of foreign ploidy level, suggesting niche differentiation between the two cytotypes. On the other hand, transplanted adult plants survived at all sites and juvenile plants were able to establish at some sites of the foreign cytotype. Furthermore, the mean number of juveniles, survival, and flowering percentages were higher at home sites than at foreign sites, indicating local adaptation. We conclude that niche differentiation between the two cytotypes and local adaptation within each cytotype may contribute to the maintenance of diploid and hexaploid populations of A. amellus in their contact zone. Moreover, further factors, such as differences in flowering phenology and exclusion of minority cytotypes, should also be considered.