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Atmosphere

About: Atmosphere is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 30822 publications have been published within this topic receiving 737880 citations.


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01 Jan 2006
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a model for the chemistry of the Troposphere of the atmosphere and describe the properties of the Atmospheric Aqueous phase of single aerosol particles.
Abstract: 1 The Atmosphere. 2 Atmospheric Trace Constituents. 3 Chemical Kinetics. 4 Atmospheric Radiation and Photochemistry. 5 Chemistry of the Stratosphere. 6 Chemistry of the Troposphere. 7 Chemistry of the Atmospheric Aqueous Phase. 8 Properties of the Atmospheric Aerosol. 9 Dynamics of Single Aerosol Particles. 10 Thermodynamics of Aerosols. 11 Nucleation. 12 Mass Transfer Aspects of Atmospheric Chemistry. 13 Dynamics of Aerosol Populations. 14 Organic Atmospheric Aerosols. 15 Interaction of Aerosols with Radiation. 16 Meteorology of the Local Scale. 17 Cloud Physics. 18 Atmospheric Diffusion. 19 Dry Deposition. 20 Wet Deposition. 21 General Circulation of the Atmosphere. 22 Global Cycles: Sulfur and Carbon. 23 Climate and Chemical Composition of the Atmosphere. 24 Aerosols and Climate. 25 Atmospheric Chemical Transport Models. 26 Statistical Models.

11,157 citations

Book
01 Jan 1997
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a model for the chemistry of the Troposphere of the atmosphere and describe the properties of the Atmospheric Aqueous phase of single aerosol particles.
Abstract: 1 The Atmosphere. 2 Atmospheric Trace Constituents. 3 Chemical Kinetics. 4 Atmospheric Radiation and Photochemistry. 5 Chemistry of the Stratosphere. 6 Chemistry of the Troposphere. 7 Chemistry of the Atmospheric Aqueous Phase. 8 Properties of the Atmospheric Aerosol. 9 Dynamics of Single Aerosol Particles. 10 Thermodynamics of Aerosols. 11 Nucleation. 12 Mass Transfer Aspects of Atmospheric Chemistry. 13 Dynamics of Aerosol Populations. 14 Organic Atmospheric Aerosols. 15 Interaction of Aerosols with Radiation. 16 Meteorology of the Local Scale. 17 Cloud Physics. 18 Atmospheric Diffusion. 19 Dry Deposition. 20 Wet Deposition. 21 General Circulation of the Atmosphere. 22 Global Cycles: Sulfur and Carbon. 23 Climate and Chemical Composition of the Atmosphere. 24 Aerosols and Climate. 25 Atmospheric Chemical Transport Models. 26 Statistical Models.

9,021 citations

Book
14 Nov 2013
TL;DR: In this article, the authors describe how the Ocean-Atmosphere system is driven by transfer of properties between the atmosphere and the ocean. But they do not consider the effects of side boundaries.
Abstract: How the Ocean--Atmosphere System Is Driven. Transfer of Properties between Atmosphere and Ocean. Properties of a Fluid at Rest. Equations Satisfied by a Moving Fluid. Adjustment under Gravity in a Nonrotating System. Adjustment under Gravity of a Density-Stratified Fluid. Effect of Rotation. Gravity Waves in a Rotating Fluid. Forced Motion. Effects of Side Boundaries. The Tropics. Mid-Latitudes. Instabilities, Fronts, and the General Circulation. Units and Their SI Equivalents. Useful Values. Properties of Seawater. Properties of Moist Air. A List of Atlases and Data Sources. References. Index.

5,750 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the influence of variability in wind speed on the calculated gas transfer velocities and the possibility of chemical enhancement of CO2 exchange at low wind speeds over the ocean is illustrated using a quadratic dependence of gas exchange on wind speed.
Abstract: Relationships between wind speed and gas transfer, combined with knowledge of the partial pressure difference of CO2 across the air-sea interface are frequently used to determine the CO2 flux between the ocean and the atmosphere. Little attention has been paid to the influence of variability in wind speed on the calculated gas transfer velocities and the possibility of chemical enhancement of CO2 exchange at low wind speeds over the ocean. The effect of these parameters is illustrated using a quadratic dependence of gas exchange on wind speed which is fit through gas transfer velocities over the ocean determined by the natural-14C disequilibrium and the bomb-14C inventory methods. Some of the variability between different data sets can be accounted for by the suggested mechanisms, but much of the variation appears due to other causes. Possible causes for the large difference between two frequently used relationships between gas transfer and wind speed are discussed. To determine fluxes of gases other than CO2 across the air-water interface, the relevant expressions for gas transfer, and the temperature and salinity dependence of the Schmidt number and solubility of several gases of environmental interest are included in an appendix.

4,187 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
07 Dec 2001-Science
TL;DR: Human activities are releasing tiny particles (aerosols) into the atmosphere that enhance scattering and absorption of solar radiation, which can lead to a weaker hydrological cycle, which connects directly to availability and quality of fresh water, a major environmental issue of the 21st century.
Abstract: Human activities are releasing tiny particles (aerosols) into the atmosphere. These human-made aerosols enhance scattering and absorption of solar radiation. They also produce brighter clouds that are less efficient at releasing precipitation. These in turn lead to large reductions in the amount of solar irradiance reaching Earth's surface, a corresponding increase in solar heating of the atmosphere, changes in the atmospheric temperature structure, suppression of rainfall, and less efficient removal of pollutants. These aerosol effects can lead to a weaker hydrological cycle, which connects directly to availability and quality of fresh water, a major environmental issue of the 21st century.

3,469 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202214
2021891
20201,053
20191,048
2018981
2017906