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Atmospheric temperature

About: Atmospheric temperature is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 4977 publications have been published within this topic receiving 203425 citations.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A suite of climate change indices derived from daily temperature and precipitation data, with a primary focus on extreme events, were computed and analyzed as discussed by the authors, and the results showed widespread significant changes in temperature extremes associated with warming.
Abstract: A suite of climate change indices derived from daily temperature and precipitation data, with a primary focus on extreme events, were computed and analyzed. By setting an exact formula for each index and using specially designed software, analyses done in different countries have been combined seamlessly. This has enabled the presentation of the most up-to-date and comprehensive global picture of trends in extreme temperature and precipitation indices using results from a number of workshops held in data-sparse regions and high-quality station data supplied by numerous scientists world wide. Seasonal and annual indices for the period 1951-2003 were gridded. Trends in the gridded fields were computed and tested for statistical significance. Results showed widespread significant changes in temperature extremes associated with warming, especially for those indices derived from daily minimum temperature. Over 70% of the global land area sampled showed a significant decrease in the annual occurrence of cold nights and a significant increase in the annual occurrence of warm nights. Some regions experienced a more than doubling of these indices. This implies a positive shift in the distribution of daily minimum temperature throughout the globe. Daily maximum temperature indices showed similar changes but with smaller magnitudes. Precipitation changes showed a widespread and significant increase, but the changes are much less spatially coherent compared with temperature change. Probability distributions of indices derived from approximately 200 temperature and 600 precipitation stations, with near-complete data for 1901-2003 and covering a very large region of the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes (and parts of Australia for precipitation) were analyzed for the periods 1901-1950, 1951-1978 and 1979-2003. Results indicate a significant warming throughout the 20th century. Differences in temperature indices distributions are particularly pronounced between the most recent two periods and for those indices related to minimum temperature. An analysis of those indices for which seasonal time series are available shows that these changes occur for all seasons although they are generally least pronounced for September to November. Precipitation indices show a tendency toward wetter conditions throughout the 20th century.

3,722 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
07 Dec 2001-Science
TL;DR: Human activities are releasing tiny particles (aerosols) into the atmosphere that enhance scattering and absorption of solar radiation, which can lead to a weaker hydrological cycle, which connects directly to availability and quality of fresh water, a major environmental issue of the 21st century.
Abstract: Human activities are releasing tiny particles (aerosols) into the atmosphere. These human-made aerosols enhance scattering and absorption of solar radiation. They also produce brighter clouds that are less efficient at releasing precipitation. These in turn lead to large reductions in the amount of solar irradiance reaching Earth's surface, a corresponding increase in solar heating of the atmosphere, changes in the atmospheric temperature structure, suppression of rainfall, and less efficient removal of pollutants. These aerosol effects can lead to a weaker hydrological cycle, which connects directly to availability and quality of fresh water, a major environmental issue of the 21st century.

3,469 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
22 Jan 2004-Nature
TL;DR: It is found that an event like that of summer 2003 is statistically extremely unlikely, even when the observed warming is taken into account, and it is proposed that a regime with an increased variability of temperatures (in addition to increases in mean temperature) may be able to account for summer 2003.
Abstract: Instrumental observations1,2 and reconstructions3,4 of global and hemispheric temperature evolution reveal a pronounced warming during the past ∼150 years. One expression of this warming is the observed increase in the occurrence of heatwaves5,6. Conceptually this increase is understood as a shift of the statistical distribution towards warmer temperatures, while changes in the width of the distribution are often considered small7. Here we show that this framework fails to explain the record-breaking central European summer temperatures in 2003, although it is consistent with observations from previous years. We find that an event like that of summer 2003 is statistically extremely unlikely, even when the observed warming is taken into account. We propose that a regime with an increased variability of temperatures (in addition to increases in mean temperature) may be able to account for summer 2003. To test this proposal, we simulate possible future European climate with a regional climate model in a scenario with increased atmospheric greenhouse-gas concentrations, and find that temperature variability increases by up to 100%, with maximum changes in central and eastern Europe.

2,660 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the MSIS-86 empirical model has been extended into the mesosphere and lower atmosphere to provide a single analytic model for calculating temperature and density profiles representative of the climatological average for various geophysical conditions.
Abstract: The MSIS-86 empirical model has been revised in the lower thermosphere and extended into the mesosphere and lower atmosphere to provide a single analytic model for calculating temperature and density profiles representative of the climatological average for various geophysical conditions. Tabulations from the Handbook for MAP 16 are the primary guide for the lower atmosphere and are supplemented by historical rocket and incoherent scatter data in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere. Low-order spherical harmonics and Fourier series are used to describe the major variations throughout the atmosphere including latitude, annual, semiannual, and simplified local time and longitude variations. While month to month details cannot be completely represented, lower atmosphere temperature data are fit to an overall standard deviation of 3 K and pressure to 2%. Comparison with rocket and other data indicates that the model represents current knowledge of the climatological average reasonably well, although there is some conflict as to details near the mesopause.

2,359 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A generalized split-window method for retrieving land-surface temperature (LST) from AVHRR and MODIS data is proposed, which is less sensitive to uncertainty in emissivity and to instrument quantization error, and retrieves land- surface temperature more accurately.
Abstract: Proposes a generalized split-window method for retrieving land-surface temperature (LST) from AVHRR and MODIS data. Accurate radiative transfer simulations show that the coefficients in the split-window algorithm for LST must vary with the viewing angle, if the authors are to achieve a LST accuracy of about 1 K for the whole scan swath range (/spl plusmn/55/spl deg/ from nadir) and for the ranges of surface temperature and atmospheric conditions over land, which are much wider than those over oceans. The authors obtain these coefficients from regression analysis of radiative transfer simulations, and they analyze sensitivity and error over wide ranges of surface temperature and emissivity and atmospheric water vapor abundance and temperature. Simulations show that when atmospheric water vapor increases and viewing angle is larger than 45/spl deg/, it is necessary to optimize the split-window method by separating the ranges of the atmospheric water vapor, lower boundary temperature, and the surface temperature into tractable subranges. The atmospheric lower boundary temperature and (vertical) column water vapor values retrieved from HIRS/2 or MODIS atmospheric sounding channels can be used to determine the range for the optimum coefficients of the split-window method. This new algorithm not only retrieves land-surface temperature more accurately, but is also less sensitive to uncertainty in emissivity and to instrument quantization error.

1,553 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20238
202216
202178
202072
201982
201864