Topic

# Atmospheric wave

About: Atmospheric wave is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 2282 publications have been published within this topic receiving 64244 citations. The topic is also known as: atmospheric perturbation.

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TL;DR: In this article, the effects of mean winds and gravity waves on the mean momentum budget were investigated and it was shown that the existence of critical levels in the mesosphere significantly limits the ability of gravity waves to generate turbulence.

Abstract: It has been suggested (Lindzen, 1967, 1968a, b; Lindzen and Blake, 1971; Hodges, 1969) that turbulence in the upper mesosphere arises from the unstable breakdown of tides and gravity waves. Crudely speaking, it was expected that sufficient turbulence would be generated to prevent the growth of wave amplitude with height (roughly as (basic pressure)−1/2). This work has been extended to allow for the generation of turbulence by smaller amplitude waves, the effects of mean winds on the waves, and the effects of the waves on the mean momentum budget. The effects of mean winds, while of relatively small importance for tides, are crucial for internal gravity waves originating in the troposphere. Winds in the troposphere and stratosphere sharply limit the phase speeds of waves capable of reaching the upper mesosphere. In addition, the existence of critical levels in the mesosphere significantly limits the ability of gravity waves to generate turbulence, while the breakdown of gravity waves contributes to the development of critical levels. The results of the present study suggest that at middle latitudes in winter, eddy coefficients may peak at relatively low altitudes (50 km) and at higher altitudes in summer and during sudden warmings (70–80 km), and decrease with height rather sharply above these levels. Rocket observations are used to estimate momentum deposition by gravity waves. Accelerations of about 100 m/s/day are suggested. Such accelerations are entirely capable of producing the warm winter and cold summer mesopauses.

1,967 citations

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TL;DR: The quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) as discussed by the authors dominates the variability of the equatorial stratosphere (∼16-50 km) and is easily seen as downward propagating easterly and westerly wind regimes, with a variable period averaging approximately 28 months.

Abstract: The quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) dominates the variability of the equatorial stratosphere (∼16–50 km) and is easily seen as downward propagating easterly and westerly wind regimes, with a variable period averaging approximately 28 months. From a fluid dynamical perspective, the QBO is a fascinating example of a coherent, oscillating mean flow that is driven by propagating waves with periods unrelated to that of the resulting oscillation. Although the QBO is a tropical phenomenon, it affects the stratospheric flow from pole to pole by modulating the effects of extratropical waves. Indeed, study of the QBO is inseparable from the study of atmospheric wave motions that drive it and are modulated by it. The QBO affects variability in the mesosphere near 85 km by selectively filtering waves that propagate upward through the equatorial stratosphere, and may also affect the strength of Atlantic hurricanes. The effects of the QBO are not confined to atmospheric dynamics. Chemical constituents, such as ozone, water vapor, and methane, are affected by circulation changes induced by the QBO. There are also substantial QBO signals in many of the shorter-lived chemical constituents. Through modulation of extratropical wave propagation, the QBO has an effect on the breakdown of the wintertime stratospheric polar vortices and the severity of high-latitude ozone depletion. The polar vortex in the stratosphere affects surface weather patterns, providing a mechanism for the QBO to have an effect at the Earth's surface. As more data sources (e.g., wind and temperature measurements from both ground-based systems and satellites) become available, the effects of the QBO can be more precisely assessed. This review covers the current state of knowledge of the tropical QBO, its extratropical dynamical effects, chemical constituent transport, and effects of the QBO in the troposphere (∼0–16 km) and mesosphere (∼50–100 km). It is intended to provide a broad overview of the QBO and its effects to researchers outside the field, as well as a source of information and references for specialists. The history of research on the QBO is discussed only briefly, and the reader is referred to several historical review papers. The basic theory of the QBO is summarized, and tutorial references are provided.

1,744 citations

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TL;DR: The TOPEX/POSEIDON satellite altimeter has detected Rossby waves throughout much of the world ocean from sea level signals with ≲10-centimeter amplitude and ≳500-kilometer wavelength.

Abstract: Rossby waves play a critical role in the transient adjustment of ocean circulation to changes in large-scale atmospheric forcing. The TOPEX/POSEIDON satellite altimeter has detected Rossby waves throughout much of the world ocean from sea level signals with ≲10-centimeter amplitude and ≳500-kilometer wavelength. Outside of the tropics, Rossby waves are abruptly amplified by major topographic features. Analysis of 3 years of data reveals discrepancies between observed and theoretical Rossby wave phase speeds that indicate that the standard theory for free, linear Rossby waves is an incomplete description of the observed waves.

762 citations

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22 May 1980

TL;DR: In this article, the fundamental system of equations governing large-scale atmospheric motions, coordinate systems, atmospheric wave motions, energetics, hyperbolic and elliptic equations, moisture modeling, solar and terrestrial radiation modeling, seasonal and climate prediction.

Abstract: An advanced, updated, and self-contained treatment. Includes the fundamental system of equations governing large-scale atmospheric motions, coordinate systems, atmospheric wave motions, energetics, hyperbolic and elliptic equations, moisture modeling, solar and terrestrial radiation modeling, seasonal and climate prediction. Presupposes a knowledge of mathematics through calculus, some vector analysis, and introductory meteorology.

746 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a locally applicable (nonzonally-averaged) conservation relation is derived for quasi-geostrophic stationary waves on a zonal flow, a generalization of the Eliassen-Palm relation.

Abstract: A locally applicable (nonzonally-averaged) conservation relation is derived for quasi-geostrophic stationary waves on a zonal flow, a generalization of the Eliassen-Palm relation. The flux which appears in this relation constitutes, it is argued, a useful diagnostic of the three-dimensional propagation of stationary wave activity. This is illustrated by application to a simple theoretical model of a forced Rossby wave train and to a Northern Hemisphere winter climatology. Results of the latter procedure suggest that the major forcing of the stationary wave field derives from the orographic effects of the Tibetan plateau and from nonorographic effects (diabatic heating and/or interaction with transient eddies) in the western North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans and Siberia. No evidence is found in the data for wave trains of tropical origin; forcing by the orographic effects of the Rocky mountains seems to be of secondary importance.

724 citations