Topic

# Atomic clock

About: Atomic clock is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 4291 publications have been published within this topic receiving 78686 citations.

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TL;DR: The ability to count optical oscillations of more than 1015 cycles per second facilitates high-precision optical spectroscopy, and has led to the construction of an all-optical atomic clock that is expected eventually to outperform today's state-of-the-art caesium clocks.

Abstract: Extremely narrow optical resonances in cold atoms or single trapped ions can be measured with high resolution. A laser locked to such a narrow optical resonance could serve as a highly stable oscillator for an all-optical atomic clock. However, until recently there was no reliable clockwork mechanism that could count optical frequencies of hundreds of terahertz. Techniques using femtosecond-laser frequency combs, developed within the past few years, have solved this problem. The ability to count optical oscillations of more than 1015 cycles per second facilitates high-precision optical spectroscopy, and has led to the construction of an all-optical atomic clock that is expected eventually to outperform today's state-of-the-art caesium clocks.

2,395 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a theoretical analysis of the relationship between the expectation value of the standard deviation of the frequency fluctuations for any finite number of data samples and the infinite time average value of a standard deviation is presented.

Abstract: A theoretical development is presented which results in a relationship between the expectation value of the standard deviation of the frequency fluctuations for any finite number of data samples and the infinite time average value of the standard deviation, which provides an invariant measure of an important quality factor of a frequency standard. A practical and straightforward method of determining the power spectral density of the frequency fluctuations from the variance of the frequency fluctuations, the sampling time, the number of samples taken, and the dependence on system bandwidth is also developed. Additional insight is also given into some of the problems that arise from the presence of "flicker noise" (spectrum proportional to |ω|-1) modulation of the frequency of an oscillator. The theory is applied in classifying the types of noise on the signals of frequency standards made available at NBS, Boulder Laboratories, such as: masers (both H and N15H 3 ), the cesium beam frequency standard employed as the U. S. Frequency Standard, and rubidium gas cells. "Flicker noise" frequency modulation was not observed on the signals of masers for sampling times ranging from 0.1 second to 4 hours. In a comparison between the NBS hydrogen maser and the NBS III cesium beam, uncorrelated random noise was observed on the frequency fluctuations for sampling times extending to 4 hours; the fractional standard deviations of the frequency fluctuations were as low as 5 parts in 1014.

2,331 citations

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TL;DR: A new optical frequency comb generation principle has emerged that uses parametric frequency conversion in high resonance quality factor (Q) microresonators, permitting an increased number of comb applications, such as in astronomy, microwave photonics, or telecommunications.

Abstract: The series of precisely spaced, sharp spectral lines that form an optical frequency comb is enabling unprecedented measurement capabilities and new applications in a wide range of topics that include precision spectroscopy, atomic clocks, ultracold gases, and molecular fingerprinting. A new optical frequency comb generation principle has emerged that uses parametric frequency conversion in high resonance quality factor (Q) microresonators. This approach provides access to high repetition rates in the range of 10 to 1000 gigahertz through compact, chip-scale integration, permitting an increased number of comb applications, such as in astronomy, microwave photonics, or telecommunications. We review this emerging area and discuss opportunities that it presents for novel technologies as well as for fundamental science.

1,476 citations

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TL;DR: Repeated measurements during the past year yield a preliminary constraint on the temporal variation of the fine-structure constant α of α ofbatchmode, a regime of operation for atomic clocks based on optical transitions, promising even higher performance.

Abstract: Time has always had a special status in physics because of its fundamental role in specifying the regularities of nature and because of the extraordinary precision with which it can be measured. This precision enables tests of fundamental physics and cosmology, as well as practical applications such as satellite navigation. Recently, a regime of operation for atomic clocks based on optical transitions has become possible, promising even higher performance. We report the frequency ratio of two optical atomic clocks with a fractional uncertainty of 5.2 × 10–17. The ratio of aluminum and mercury single-ion optical clock frequencies νAl+/νHg+ is 1.052871833148990438(55), where the uncertainty comprises a statistical measurement uncertainty of 4.3 × 10–17, and systematic uncertainties of 1.9 × 10–17 and 2.3 × 10–17 in the mercury and aluminum frequency standards, respectively. Repeated measurements during the past year yield a preliminary constraint on the temporal variation of the fine-structure constant α of ![Formula][1] .
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1,252 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors review the spectacular accuracy and stability gains that can be obtained when working with laser cooled ions or neutral atoms and discuss some important applications of these optical clocks, from geodesy to tests of fundamental theories to many body physics.

Abstract: Since 1967 the primary time standard is the cesium atomic clock, based on a hyperfine transition in the microwave domain The development of ultrastable laser sources now allows one to operate on electronic transitions in the optical domain, corresponding to a 5-order-of-magnitude increase in the clock frequency This article reviews the spectacular accuracy and stability gains that can be obtained when working with laser cooled ions or neutral atoms It also discusses some important applications of these optical clocks, from geodesy to tests of fundamental theories to many-body physics

1,097 citations