Atomic layer deposition
About: Atomic layer deposition is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 19821 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 477332 citation(s). The topic is also known as: ALD.
Papers published on a yearly basis
01 Jan 2010-Chemical Reviews
30 Jun 2005-Journal of Applied Physics
TL;DR: In this paper, the surface chemistry of the trimethylaluminum/water ALD process is reviewed, with an aim to combine the information obtained in different types of investigations, such as growth experiments on flat substrates and reaction chemistry investigation on high-surface-area materials.
Abstract: Atomic layer deposition(ALD), a chemical vapor deposition technique based on sequential self-terminating gas–solid reactions, has for about four decades been applied for manufacturing conformal inorganic material layers with thickness down to the nanometer range. Despite the numerous successful applications of material growth by ALD, many physicochemical processes that control ALD growth are not yet sufficiently understood. To increase understanding of ALD processes, overviews are needed not only of the existing ALD processes and their applications, but also of the knowledge of the surface chemistry of specific ALD processes. This work aims to start the overviews on specific ALD processes by reviewing the experimental information available on the surface chemistry of the trimethylaluminum/water process. This process is generally known as a rather ideal ALD process, and plenty of information is available on its surface chemistry. This in-depth summary of the surface chemistry of one representative ALD process aims also to provide a view on the current status of understanding the surface chemistry of ALD, in general. The review starts by describing the basic characteristics of ALD, discussing the history of ALD—including the question who made the first ALD experiments—and giving an overview of the two-reactant ALD processes investigated to date. Second, the basic concepts related to the surface chemistry of ALD are described from a generic viewpoint applicable to all ALD processes based on compound reactants. This description includes physicochemical requirements for self-terminating reactions,reaction kinetics, typical chemisorption mechanisms, factors causing saturation, reasons for growth of less than a monolayer per cycle, effect of the temperature and number of cycles on the growth per cycle (GPC), and the growth mode. A comparison is made of three models available for estimating the sterically allowed value of GPC in ALD. Third, the experimental information on the surface chemistry in the trimethylaluminum/water ALD process are reviewed using the concepts developed in the second part of this review. The results are reviewed critically, with an aim to combine the information obtained in different types of investigations, such as growth experiments on flat substrates and reaction chemistry investigation on high-surface-area materials. Although the surface chemistry of the trimethylaluminum/water ALD process is rather well understood, systematic investigations of the reaction kinetics and the growth mode on different substrates are still missing. The last part of the review is devoted to discussing issues which may hamper surface chemistry investigations of ALD, such as problematic historical assumptions, nonstandard terminology, and the effect of experimental conditions on the surface chemistry of ALD. I hope that this review can help the newcomer get acquainted with the exciting and challenging field of surface chemistry of ALD and can serve as a useful guide for the specialist towards the fifth decade of ALD research.
30 Jan 2004-Chemistry of Materials
TL;DR: In this article, the properties of low-temperature Al2O3 ALD films were investigated versus growth temperature by depositing films on Si(100) substrates and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensors.
Abstract: Al2O3 films were deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at temperatures as low as 33 °C in a viscous-flow reactor using alternating exposures of Al(CH3)3 (trimethylaluminum [TMA]) and H2O. Low-temperature Al2O3 ALD films have the potential to coat thermally fragile substrates such as organic, polymeric, or biological materials. The properties of low-temperature Al2O3 ALD films were investigated versus growth temperature by depositing films on Si(100) substrates and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensors. Al2O3 film thicknesses, growth rates, densities, and optical properties were determined using surface profilometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM), QCM, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Al2O3 film densities were lower at lower deposition temperatures. Al2O3 ALD film densities were 3.0 g/cm3 at 177 °C and 2.5 g/cm3 at 33 °C. AFM images showed that Al2O3 ALD films grown at low temperatures were very smooth with a root-mean-squared (RMS) roughness of only 4 ± 1 A. Current−voltage and capacitance−voltage...
•26 Jan 2007
TL;DR: In this article, a zinc-oxide-based thin-film semiconductor for use in a transistor was proposed, which consisted of thin film deposition onto a substrate comprising providing a plurality of gaseous materials comprising at least first, second, and third gases.
Abstract: The present invention relates to a process of making a zinc-oxide-based thin film semiconductor, for use in a transistor, comprising thin film deposition onto a substrate comprising providing a plurality of gaseous materials comprising at least first, second, and third gaseous materials, wherein the first gaseous material is a zinc-containing volatile material and the second gaseous material is reactive therewith such that when one of the first or second gaseous materials are on the surface of the substrate the other of the first or second gaseous materials will react to deposit a layer of material on the substrate and wherein the third gaseous material is inert with respect to reacting with the first or second gaseous materials.
15 Aug 2005-Journal of Applied Physics
TL;DR: In this article, the resistive switching mechanism of 20-to 57-nm-thick TiO2 thin films grown by atomic-layer deposition was studied by currentvoltage measurements and conductive atomic force microscopy.
Abstract: The resistive switching mechanism of 20- to 57-nm-thick TiO2 thin films grown by atomic-layer deposition was studied by current-voltage measurements and conductive atomic force microscopy. Electric pulse-induced resistance switching was repetitively (> a few hundred times) observed with a resistance ratio ⪢102. Both the low- and high-resistance states showed linear log current versus log voltage graphs with a slope of 1 in the low-voltage region where switching did not occur. The thermal stability of both conduction states was also studied. Atomic force microscopy studies under atmosphere and high-vacuum conditions showed that resistance switching is closely related to the formation and elimination of conducting spots. The conducting spots of the low-resistance state have a few tens times higher conductivity than those of the high-resistance state and their density is also a few tens times higher which results in a ∼103 times larger overall conductivity. An interesting finding was that the area where the ...
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