About: Atomicity is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 2120 publications have been published within this topic receiving 51208 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: It is argued that a transaction needs to lock a logical rather than a physical subset of the database, and an implementation of predicate locks which satisfies the consistency condition is suggested.
Abstract: In database systems, users access shared data under the assumption that the data satisfies certain consistency constraints. This paper defines the concepts of transaction, consistency and schedule and shows that consistency requires that a transaction cannot request new locks after releasing a lock. Then it is argued that a transaction needs to lock a logical rather than a physical subset of the database. These subsets may be specified by predicates. An implementation of predicate locks which satisfies the consistency condition is suggested.
01 Jan 1995
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a scalable algorithm for spin locks that provides reasonable latency in the absence of contention, requires only a constant amount of space per lock, and requires no hardware support other than a swap-with-memory instruction.
Abstract: Busy-wait techniques are heavily used for mutual exclusion and barrier synchronization in shared-memory parallel programs. Unfortunately, typical implementations of busy-waiting tend to produce large amounts of memory and interconnect contention, introducing performance bottlenecks that become markedly more pronounced as applications scale. We argue that this problem is not fundamental, and that one can in fact construct busy-wait synchronization algorithms that induce no memory or interconnect contention. The key to these algorithms is for every processor to spin on separate locally-accessible flag variables, and for some other processor to terminate the spin with a single remote write operation at an appropriate time. Flag variables may be locally-accessible as a result of coherent caching, or by virtue of allocation in the local portion of physically distributed shared memory.We present a new scalable algorithm for spin locks that generates 0(1) remote references per lock acquisition, independent of the number of processors attempting to acquire the lock. Our algorithm provides reasonable latency in the absence of contention, requires only a constant amount of space per lock, and requires no hardware support other than a swap-with-memory instruction. We also present a new scalable barrier algorithm that generates 0(1) remote references per processor reaching the barrier, and observe that two previously-known barriers can likewise be cast in a form that spins only on locally-accessible flag variables. None of these barrier algorithms requires hardware support beyond the usual atomicity of memory reads and writes.We compare the performance of our scalable algorithms with other software approaches to busy-wait synchronization on both a Sequent Symmetry and a BBN Butterfly. Our principal conclusion is that contention due to synchronization need not be a problem in large-scale shared-memory multiprocessors. The existence of scalable algorithms greatly weakens the case for costly special-purpose hardware support for synchronization, and provides a case against so-called “dance hall” architectures, in which shared memory locations are equally far from all processors. —From the Authors' Abstract
••02 Mar 2004
TL;DR: To explore the costs and benefits of TCC, the characteristics of an optimal transaction-based memory system are studied, and how different design parameters could affect the performance of real systems are examined.
Abstract: In this paper, we propos a new shared memory model: Transactionalmemory Coherence and Consistency (TCC).TCC providesa model in which atomic transactions are always the basicunit of parallel work, communication, memory coherence, andmemory reference consistency.TCC greatly simplifies parallelsoftware by eliminating the need for synchronization using conventionallocks and semaphores, along with their complexities.TCC hardware must combine all writes from each transaction regionin a program into a single packet and broadcast this packetto the permanent shared memory state atomically as a large block.This simplifies the coherence hardware because it reduces theneed for small, low-latency messages and completely eliminatesthe need for conventional snoopy cache coherence protocols, asmultiple speculatively written versions of a cache line may safelycoexist within the system.Meanwhile, automatic, hardware-controlledrollback of speculative transactions resolves any correctnessviolations that may occur when several processors attemptto read and write the same data simultaneously.The cost of thissimplified scheme is higher interprocessor bandwidth.To explore the costs and benefits of TCC, we study the characterisitcsof an optimal transaction-based memory system, and examinehow different design parameters could affect the performanceof real systems.Across a spectrum of applications, the TCC modelitself did not limit available parallelism.Most applications areeasily divided into transactions requiring only small write buffers,on the order of 4-8 KB.The broadcast requirements of TCCare high, but are well within the capabilities of CMPs and small-scaleSMPs with high-speed interconnects.
01 Jun 1988
TL;DR: Some areas which require further study are described: the integration of the transaction concept with the notion of abstract data type, some techniques to allow transactions to be composed of sub- transactions, and handles which last for extremely long times.
Abstract: A transaction is a transformation of state which has the properties of atomicity (all or nothing), durability (effects survive failures) and consistency (a correct transformation). The transaction concept is key to the structuring of data management applications. The concept may have applicability to programming systems in general. This paper restates the transaction concepts and attempts to put several implementation approaches in perspective. It then describes some areas which require further study: (1) the integration of the transaction concept with the notion of abstract data type, (2) some techniques to allow transactions to be composed of sub- transactions, and (3) handling transactions which last for extremely long times (days or months).
••01 Oct 1992
TL;DR: It is argued that the multidatabase research will become increasingly important in the coming years and basic research issues in multid atabase transaction management are outlined, followed by a discussion of open problems and practical implications.
Abstract: A multidatabase system (MDBS) is a facility that allows users access to data located in multiple autonomous database management systems (DBMSs). In such a system, global transactions are executed under the control of the MDBS. Independently, local transactions are executed under the control of the local DBMSs. Each local DBMS integrated by the MDBS may employ a different transaction management scheme. In addition, each local DBMS has complete control over all transactions (global and local) executing at its site, including the ability to abort at any point any of the transactions executing at its site. Typically, no design or internal DBMS structure changes are allowed in order to accommodate the MDBS. Furthermore, the local DBMSs may not be aware of each other and, as a consequence, cannot coordinate their actions. Thus, traditional techniques for ensuring transaction atomicity and consistency in homogeneous distributed database systems may not be appropriate for an MDBS environment. The objective of this article is to provide a brief review of the most current work in the area of multidatabase transaction management. We first define the problem and argue that the multidatabase research will become increasingly important in the coming years. We then outline basic research issues in multidatabase transaction management and review recent results in the area. We conclude with a discussion of open problems and practical implications of this research.
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