About: Atrazine is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 4382 publications have been published within this topic receiving 118403 citations. The topic is also known as: 2-Chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine & 6-Chloro-N-ethyl-N'- (1-methylethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: It is hypothesize that atrazine induces aromatase and promotes the conversion of testosterone to estrogen and likely explains the demasculinization of the male larynx and the production of hermaphrodites.
Abstract: Atrazine is the most commonly used herbicide in the U.S. and probably the world. It can be present at several parts per million in agricultural runoff and can reach 40 parts per billion (ppb) in precipitation. We examined the effects of atrazine on sexual development in African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis). Larvae were exposed to atrazine (0.01–200 ppb) by immersion throughout larval development, and we examined gonadal histology and laryngeal size at metamorphosis. Atrazine (>0.1 ppb) induced hermaphroditism and demasculinized the larynges of exposed males (>1.0 ppb). In addition, we examined plasma testosterone levels in sexually mature males. Male X. laevis suffered a 10-fold decrease in testosterone levels when exposed to 25 ppb atrazine. We hypothesize that atrazine induces aromatase and promotes the conversion of testosterone to estrogen. This disruption in steroidogenesis likely explains the demasculinization of the male larynx and the production of hermaphrodites. The effective levels reported in the current study are realistic exposures that suggest that other amphibian species exposed to atrazine in the wild could be at risk of impaired sexual development. This widespread compound and other environmental endocrine disruptors may be a factor in global amphibian declines.
TL;DR: Results from this study indicated that dairy manure can be converted into value-added biochar as effective sorbent for metal and/or organic contaminants.
Abstract: Biochar (BC) produced from agricultural crop residues has proven effective in sorbing organic contaminants. This study evaluated the ability of dairy-manure derived biochar to sorb heavy metal Pb and organic contaminant atrazine. Two biochar samples were prepared by heating dairy manure at low temperature of 200 degrees C (BC200) and 350 degrees C (BC350). The untreated manure (BC25) and a commercial activated C (AC) were included as controls. Sorption of Pb by biochar followed a dual Langmuir-Langmuir model, attributing to Pb precipitation (84-87%) and surface sorption (13-16%). Chemical speciation, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy indicated that Pb was precipitated as beta-Pb9(PO4)6 in BC25 and BC200 treatment, and as Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2 in BC350. Lead sorption by AC obeyed a single Langmuir model, attributing mainly to surface sorption probably via coordination of Pb d-electron to C==C (pi-electron) and --0--Pb bonds. The biochar was 6 times more effective in Pb sorption than AC, with BC200 being the most effective (up to 680 mmol Pb kg(-1)). The biochar also effectively sorbed atrazine where atrazine was partitioned into its organic phase, whereas atrazine uptake by AC occurred via surface sorption. When Pb and atrazine coexisted, little competition occurred between the two for sorption on biochar, while strong competition was observed on AC. Results from this study indicated that dairy manure can be converted into value-added biochar as effective sorbent for metal and/or organic contaminants.
TL;DR: In this paper, an expert panel was convened to conduct a comprehensive aquatic ecological risk assessment based on several newly suggested procedures and included exposure and hazard subcomponents as well as the overall risk assessment.
Abstract: The triazine herbicide atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropyl-amino-s-triazine) is one of the most used pesticides in North America. Atrazine is principally used for control of certain annual broadleaf and grass weeds, primarily in corn but also in sorghum, sugarcane, and, to a lesser extent, other crops and landscaping. Atrazine is found in many surface and ground waters in North America, and aquatic ecological effects are a possible concern for the regulatory and regulated communities. To address these concerns an expert panel (the Panel) was convened to conduct a comprehensive aquatic ecological risk assessment. This assessment was based on several newly suggested procedures and included exposure and hazard subcomponents as well as the overall risk assessment. The Panel determined that use of probabilistic risk assessment techniques was appropriate. Here, the results of this assessment are presented as a case study for these techniques. The environmental exposure assessment concentrated on monitoring data from Midwestern watersheds, the area of greatest atrazine use in North America. This analysis revealed that atrazine concentrations rarely exceed 20 μg/L in rivers and streams that were the main focus of the aquatic ecological risk assessment. Following storm runoff, biota in lower-order streams may be exposed to pulses of atrazine greater than 20 μg/L, but these exposures are short-lived. The assessment also considered exposures in lakes and reservoirs. The principal data set was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey, which monitored residues in 76 Midwestern reservoirs in 11 states in 1992-1993. Residue concentrations in some reservoirs were similar to those in streams but persisted longer. Atrazine residues were widespread in reservoirs (92% occurrence), and the 90th percentile of this exposure distribution for early June to July was about 5 μg/L. Mathematical simulation models of chemical fate were used to generalize the exposure analysis to other sites and to assess the potential effects of reduction in the application rates. Models were evaluated, modified, and calibrated against available monitoring data to validate that these models could predict atrazine runoff. PRZM-2 overpredicted atrazine concentrations by about an order of magnitude, whereas GLEAMS underpredicted by a factor of 2 to 5. Thus, exposure models were not used to extrapolate to other regions of atrazine use in this assessment. The effects assessment considered both freshwater and saltwater toxicity test results. Phytoplankton were the most sensitive organisms, followed, in decreasing order of sensitivity, by macrophytes, benthic invertebrates, zooplankton, and fish. Atrazine inhibits photophosphorylation but typically does not result in lethality or permanent cell damage in the short term. This characteristic of atrazine required a different model than typically used for understanding the potential impact in aquatic systems, where lethality or nonreversible effects are usually assumed. In addition, recovery of phytoplankton from exposure to 5 to 20 μg/L atrazine was demonstrated. In some mesocosm field experiments, phytoplankton and macrophytes were reduced after atrazine exposures greater than 20 μg/L. However, populations were quickly reestablished, even while atrazine residues persisted in the water. Effects in field studies were judged to be ecologically important only at exposures of 50 μg/L or greater. Mesocosm experiments did not reveal disruption of either ecosystem structure or function at atrazine concentrations typically encountered in the environment (generally 5 μg/L or less). Based on an integration of laboratory bioassay data, field effects studies, and environmental monitoring data from watersheds in high-use areas in the Midwestern United States, the Panel concluded that atrazine does not pose a significant risk to the aquatic environment. Although some inhibitory effects on algae, phytoplankton, or macrophyte production may occur in small streams vulnerable to agricultural runoff, these effects are likely to be transient, and quick recovery of the ecological system is expected. A subset of surface waters, principally small reservoirs in areas with intensive use of atrazine, may be at greater risk of exposure to atrazine. Therefore, it is recommended that site-specific risk assessments be conducted at these sites to assess possible ecological effects in the context of the uses to which these ecosystems are put and the effectiveness and cost-benefit aspect of any risk mitigation measures that may be applied.
TL;DR: It is shown that atrazine exposure resulted in retarded gonadal development (gonadal dysgenesis) and testicular oogenesis (hermaphroditism) in leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) and the current data raise concern about the effects of atrazines on amphibians in general and the potential role of atazine and other endocrine-disrupting pesticides in amphibian declines.
Abstract: Atrazine is the most commonly used herbicide in the United States and probably the world. Atrazine contamination is widespread and can be present in excess of 1.0 ppb even in precipitation and in areas where it is not used. In the current study, we showed that atrazine exposure (> or = to 0.1 ppb) resulted in retarded gonadal development (gonadal dysgenesis) and testicular oogenesis (hermaphroditism) in leopard frogs (Rana pipiens). Slower developing males even experienced oocyte growth (vitellogenesis). Furthermore, we observed gonadal dysgenesis and hermaphroditism in animals collected from atrazine-contaminated sites across the United States. These coordinated laboratory and field studies revealed the potential biological impact of atrazine contamination in the environment. Combined with reported similar effects in Xenopus laevis, the current data raise concern about the effects of atrazine on amphibians in general and the potential role of atrazine and other endocrine-disrupting pesticides in amphibian declines.
TL;DR: The reproductive consequences of atrazine exposure in adult amphibians are demonstrated and exemplify the role that atrazin and other endocrine-disrupting pesticides likely play in global amphibian declines.
Abstract: The herbicide atrazine is one of the most commonly applied pesticides in the world. As a result, atrazine is the most commonly detected pesticide contaminant of ground, surface, and drinking water. Atrazine is also a potent endocrine disruptor that is active at low, ecologically relevant concentrations. Previous studies showed that atrazine adversely affects amphibian larval development. The present study demonstrates the reproductive consequences of atrazine exposure in adult amphibians. Atrazine-exposed males were both demasculinized (chemically castrated) and completely feminized as adults. Ten percent of the exposed genetic males developed into functional females that copulated with unexposed males and produced viable eggs. Atrazine-exposed males suffered from depressed testosterone, decreased breeding gland size, demasculinized/feminized laryngeal development, suppressed mating behavior, reduced spermatogenesis, and decreased fertility. These data are consistent with effects of atrazine observed in other vertebrate classes. The present findings exemplify the role that atrazine and other endocrine-disrupting pesticides likely play in global amphibian declines.
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