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Attenuation

About: Attenuation is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 30118 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 473266 citation(s). The topic is also known as: extinction.
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01 Jan 1973
Abstract: Preface 1. Planck's radiation law and the Einstein coefficients 2. Quantum mechanics of the atom-radiation interaction 3. Classical theory of optical fluctuations and coherence 4. Quantization of the radiation field 5. Single-mode quantum optics 6. Multimode and continuous-mode quantum optics 7. Optical generation, attenuation and amplification 8. Resonance fluorescence and light scattering 9. Nonlinear quantum optics Index

3,032 citations


Klaus Hasselmann1, Tim P. Barnett, E. Bouws, H. Carlson  +12 moreInstitutions (1)
01 Jan 1973
Abstract: "Wave spectra were measured along a profile extending 160 kilometers into the North Sea westward from Sylt for a period often weeks in 1968 and 1969. During the main experiment in July 1969, thirteen wave stations were in operation, of which six stations continued measurements into the first two weeks of August. A smaller pilot experiment was carried out in September 1968. Currents, tides, air-sea temperature differences and turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer were also measured. The goal of the experiment (described in Part 1) was to determine the structure of the source function governing the energy balance of the wave spectrum, with particular emphasis on wave growth under stationary offshore wind conditions (Part 2) and the attenuation of swell in water of finite depth (Part 3). The source functions of wave spectra generated by offshore winds exhibit a characteristic plus-minus signature associated with the shift of the sharp spectral peak towards lower frequencies. The two-lobed distribution of the source function can be explained quantitatively by the nonlinear transfer due to resonant wave-wave interactions (second order Bragg scattering). The evolution of a pronounced peak and its shift towards lower frequencies can also be understood as a selfstabilizing feature of this process. For small fetches, the principal energy balance is between the input by wind in the central region of the spectrum and the nonlinear transfer of energy away from this region to short waves, where it is dissipated, and to longer waves. Most of the wave growth on the forward face of the spectrum can be attributed to the nonlinear transfer to longer waves. For short fetches, approximately (80 ± 20) % of the momentum transferred across the air/sea interface enters the wave field, in agreement with Dobson's direct measurements of the work done on the waves by surface pressures. About 80-90 % of the wave-induced momentum flux passes into currents via the nonlinear transfer to short waves and subsequent dissipation; the rest remains in the wave field and is advected away. At larger fetches the interpretation of the energy balance becomes more ambiguous on account of the unknown dissipation in the low-frequency part of the spectrum. Zero dissipation in this frequency range yields a minimal atmospheric momentum flux into the wave field of the order of (10 to 40) % of the total momentum transfer across the air-sea interface -- but ratios up to 100 % are conceivable if dissipation is important. In general, the ratios (as inferred from the nonlinear energy transfer) lie within these limits over a wide (five-decade) range of fetches encompassing both wave-tank and the present field data, suggesting that the scales of the spectrum continually adjust such that the wave-wave interactions just balance the energy input from the wind. This may explain, among other features, the observed decrease of Phillips' "constant" with fetch. The decay rates determined for incoming swell varied considerably, but energy attenuation factors of two along the length of the profile were typical. This is in order of magnitude agreement with expected damping rates due to bottom friction. However, the strong tidal modulation predicted by theory for the case of a quadratic bottom friction law was not observed. Adverse winds did not affect the decay rate. Computations also rule out wave-wave interactions or dissipation due to turbulence outside the bottom boundary layer as effective mechanisms of swell attenuation. We conclude that either the generally accepted friction law needs to be significantly modified or that some other mechanism, such as scattering by bottom irregularities, is the cause of the attenuation. The dispersion characteristics of the swells indicated rather nearby origins, for which the classical (i event model was generally inapplicable. A strong Doppler modulation by tidal currents was also observed.

2,977 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The known optical properties (absorption, scattering, total attenuation, effective attenuation, and/or anisotropy coefficients) of various biological tissues at a variety of wavelengths are reviewed. The theoretical foundations for most experimental approaches are outlined. Relations between Kubelka-Munk parameters and transport coefficients are listed. The optical properties of aorta, liver, and muscle at 633 nm are discussed in detail. An extensive bibliography is provided. >

2,760 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
R. Rox Anderson1, John A. Parrish1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: An integrated review of the transfer of optical radiation into human skin is presented, aimed at developing useful models for photomedicine.
Abstract: An integrated review of the transfer of optical radiation into human skin is presented, aimed at developing useful models for photomedicine. The component chromophores of epidermis and stratum corneum in general determine the attenuation of radiation in these layers, moreso than does optical scattering. Epidermal thickness and melanization are important factors for UV wavelengths less than 300 nm, whereas the attenuation of UVA (320-400 nm) and visible radiation is primarily via melanin. The selective penetration of all optical wavelengths into psoriatic skin can be maximized by application of clear lipophilic liquids, which decrease regular reflectance by a refractive-index matching mechanism. Sensitivity to wavelengths less than 320 nm can be enhanced by prolonged aqueous bathing, which extracts urocanic acid and other diffusible epidermal chromophores. Optical properties of the dermis are modelled using the Kubelka-Munk approach, and calculations of scattering and absorption coefficients are presented. This simple approach allows estimates of the penetration of radiation in vivo using noninvasive measurements of cutaneous spectral remittance (diffuse reflectance). Although the blood chromophores Hb, HbO2, and bilirubin determine dermal absorption of wavelengths longer than 320 nm, scattering by collagen fibers largely determines the depths to which these wavelengths penetrate the dermis, and profoundly modifies skin colors. An optical "window" exists between 600 and 1300 nm, which offers the possibility of treating large tissue volumes with certain long-wavelength photosensitizers. Moreover, whenever photosensitized action spectra extend across the near UV and/or visible spectrum, judicious choice of wavelengths allows some selection of the tissue layers directly affected.

2,358 citations



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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202221
2021814
2020972
20191,085
20181,048
20171,046