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About: Austenite is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 36691 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 514814 citation(s). The topic is also known as: gamma-phase iron.

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Abstract: Solid-solid phase transformations often lead to certain characteristic microstructural features involving fine mixtures of the phases. In martensitic transformations one such feature is a plane interface which separates one homogeneous phase, austenite, from a very fine mixture of twins of the other phase, martensite. In quartz crystals held in a temperature gradient near the α-β transformation temperature, the α-phase breaks up into triangular domains called Dauphine twins which become finer and finer in the direction of increasing temperature. In this paper we explore a theoretical approach to these fine phase mixtures based on the minimization of free energy.

1,405 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Deformation twinning, martensitic phase transformation and mechanical properties of austenitic Fe-(15–30) wt.%Mn steels with additions of aluminium and silicon have been investigated. It is known that additions of aluminium increase the stacking fault energy γfcc and therefore strongly suppress the γ→e transformation while silicon decrease γfcc and sustains the γ→e transformation. The γ→e phase transformation takes place in steels with γ fcc ⩽20 mJ m 2 . For steels with higher stacking fault energy twinning is the main deformation mechanism. Tensile tests were carried out at different strain rates and temperatures. The formation of twins, α- and e- martensite during plastic deformation was analysed by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The developed light weight high manganese TRIP (“transformation induced plasticity”) and TWIP (“twinning induced plasticity”) steels exhibit high flow stress (600–1100 MPa) and extremely large elongation (60–95%) even at extremely high strain rates of about 103 s−1. Recent trends in the automotive industry towards improved safety standards and a reduced weight as well as a more rational and cost effective manufacturing have led to great interest in these high strength and “super tough” steels.

1,404 citations

01 Jan 2001
Abstract: The mechanism of the bainite transformation in steels is reviewed, beginning with a summary of the early research and finishing with an assessment of the transformation in the context of the other reactions which occur as austenite is cooled to temperatures where it is no longer the stable phase. The review includes a detailed account of the microstructure, chemistry, and crystallography of bainitic ferrite and of the variety of carbide precipitation reactions associated with the bainite transformation. This is followed by an assessment of the thermodynamic and kinetic characteristics of the reaction and by a consideration of the reverse transformation from bainite to austenite. It is argued that there are useful mechanistic distinctions to be made between the coherent growth of ferrite initially supersaturated with carbon (bainite), coherent growth of Widmanstatten ferrite under paraequilibrium conditions, and incoherent growth of ferrite under local equilibrium or paraequilibrium conditions. The nature of the so-called acicular ferrite is also discussed.

1,101 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Intersections of shear bands in metastable austenites have been shown to be effective sites for strain-induced martensitic nucleation. The shear bands may be in the form of e’ (hcp) martensite, mechanical twins, or dense bundles of stacking faults. Assuming that shear-band intersection is the dominant mechanism of strain-induced nucleation, an expression for the volume fraction of martensite vs plastic strain is derived by considering the course of shear-band formation, the probability of shear-band intersections, and the probability of an intersection generating a martensitic embryo. The resulting transformation curve has a sigmoidal shape and, in general, approaches saturation below 100 pct. The saturation value and rate of approach to saturation are determined by two temperature-dependent parameters related to the fee-bee chemical driving force and austenite stacking-fault energy. Fitting the expression to available data on 304 stainless steels gives good agreement for the shape of individual transformation curves as well as the temperature dependence of the derived parameters. It is concluded that the temperature dependence of the transformation kinetics (an important problem in the development of TRIP steels) may be minimized by decreasing the fee, bec, and hep entropy differences through proper compositional control.

1,075 citations

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