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Austenitic stainless steel

About: Austenitic stainless steel is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 16684 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 228555 citation(s). The topic is also known as: austenitic chromium-nickel alloy.

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Abstract: This article presents an overview of the developments in stainless steels made since the 1990s. Some of the new applications that involve the use of stainless steel are also introduced. A brief introduction to the various classes of stainless steels, their precipitate phases and the status quo of their production around the globe is given first. The advances in a variety of subject areas that have been made recently will then be presented. These recent advances include (1) new findings on the various precipitate phases (the new J phase, new orientation relationships, new phase diagram for the Fe–Cr system, etc.); (2) new suggestions for the prevention/mitigation of the different problems and new methods for their detection/measurement and (3) new techniques for surface/bulk property enhancement (such as laser shot peening, grain boundary engineering and grain refinement). Recent developments in topics like phase prediction, stacking fault energy, superplasticity, metadynamic recrystallisation and the calculation of mechanical properties are introduced, too. In the end of this article, several new applications that involve the use of stainless steels are presented. Some of these are the use of austenitic stainless steels for signature authentication (magnetic recording), the utilisation of the cryogenic magnetic transition of the sigma phase for hot spot detection (the Sigmaplugs), the new Pt-enhanced radiopaque stainless steel (PERSS) coronary stents and stainless steel stents that may be used for magnetic drug targeting. Besides recent developments in conventional stainless steels, those in the high-nitrogen, low-Ni (or Ni-free) varieties are also introduced. These recent developments include new methods for attaining very high nitrogen contents, new guidelines for alloy design, the merits/demerits associated with high nitrogen contents, etc.

1,341 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The stacking fault energies of seven commercial austenitic Fe-Cr-Ni, Fe-Cr-Ni-Mn and Fe-Mn-Ni alloys have been determined by X-ray diffraction line profile analysis. From comparison with existing data on laboratory alloys with similar compositions, it is concluded that both Ni and C increase γ while Cr, Si, Mn, and N decrease γ. Regression analysis of data produced in this study provides an expression relating γ to commercial alloy composition in terms of Ni, Cr, Mn, and Mo alloy concentrations.

732 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Although Type 316 austenitic stainless steel is widely used in steam generating plants and nuclear reactors the knowledge about aging reactions, nature of precipitates, and precipitation kinetics during high temperature exposure is limited. Time-temperature-precipitation (TTP) diagrams were determined between 400° and 900°C for up to 3000 hr as a function of carbon content, solution treatment temperature, and cold work. The nucleation and growth phenomena, morphology, and composition of the various carbide (M23C6, M6C) and intermetallic phases (σ, χ, η were determined. The complex sequence of phase instabilities can be explained on the basis of the carbon content, effect of molybdenum and chromium on the carbon solubility, thermodynamic stability of the phases, and the kinetics of the various precipitation reactions.

621 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Formation of shear bands and strain-induced e- and α′-martensite phases during tensile deformation of austenitic stainless steels was studied. Stacking fault energies (SFE) of the studied steels were measured by X-ray diffraction. Effects of external stress and SFE on the width of the stacking faults were analysed. An excellent correlation between the calculations and actual microstructures examined by scanning electron microscopy was found. Effect of overlapping of stacking faults on the fault width was discussed. Based on the discussions and experimental results, compositional, temperature and strain rate dependencies of the strain-induced α′-martensite transformation are believed to be governed mainly by the variation in the SFE.

573 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A nanostructured surface layer was formed on an AISI 304 stainless steel with low stacking-fault energy by means of the surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT). The microstructure of the surface layer of the SMATed sample was characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and cross-sectional TEM observation was performed to reveal the deformation-driven grain refinement mechanism for the f.c.c. materials with very low stacking-fault energy during SMAT. The grain refinement process in the surface layer involves formation of planar dislocation arrays and twins in deformed grains, twin-twin intersections leading to grain subdivision and a martensite transformation as well, and formation of randomly orientated refined crystallites. The formation of nanocrystallites in the top surface layer was ascribed to the much large strain and strain rate, as well as the multidirectional repetitive loading. (C) 2003 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

554 citations

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