Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia
About: Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 344 publications have been published within this topic receiving 27298 citations. The topic is also known as: autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: There is a direct correlation between the size of the (CAG)n repeat expansion and the age–of–onset of SCA1, with larger alleles occurring in juvenile cases.
Abstract: Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by neurodegeneration of the cerebellum, spinal cord and brainstem. A 1.2-Megabase stretch of DNA from the short arm of chromosome 6 containing the SCA1 locus was isolated in a yeast artificial chromosome contig and subcloned into cosmids. A highly polymorphic CAG repeat was identified in this region and was found to be unstable and expanded in individuals with SCA1. There is a direct correlation between the size of the (CAG)n repeat expansion and the age-of-onset of SCA1, with larger alleles occurring in juvenile cases. We also show that the repeat is present in a 10 kilobase mRNA transcript. SCA1 is therefore the fifth genetic disorder to display a mutational mechanism involving an unstable trinucleotide repeat.
TL;DR: It is concluded that a small polyglutamine expansion in the human α1A calcium channel is most likely the cause of a newly classified autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia, SCA6.
Abstract: A polymorphic CAG repeat was identified in the human α1A voltage-dependent calcium channel subunit. To test the hypothesis that expansion of this CAG repeat could be the cause of an inherited progressive ataxia, we genotyped a large number of unrelated controls and ataxia patients. Eight unrelated patients with late onset ataxia had alleles with larger repeat numbers (21‐27) compared to the number of repeats (4‐16) in 475 non‐ataxia individuals. Analysis of the repeat length in families of the affected individuals revealed that the expansion segregated with the phenotype in every patient. We identified six isoforms of the human α1A calcium channel subunit. The CAG repeat is within the open reading frame and is predicted to encode glutamine in three of the isoforms. We conclude that a small polyglutamine expansion in the human α1A calcium channel is most likely the cause of a newly classified autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia, SCA6.
TL;DR: It is proposed that the wide variety of clinical manifestations of DRPLA can now be explained by the variable unstable expansion of the CAG repeat.
Abstract: Hereditary dentatorubral–pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized by variable combinations of myoclonus, epilepsy, cerebellar ataxia, choreoathetosis and dementia. By specifically searching published brain cDNA sequences for the presence of CAG repeats we identified unstable expansion of a CAG in a gene on chromosome 12 in all the 22 DRPLA patients examined. A good correlation between the size of the CAG repeat expansion and the ages of disease onset is found in this group. Patients with earlier onset tended to have a phenotype of progressive myoclonus epilepsy and larger expansions. We propose that the wide variety of clinical manifestations of DRPLA can now be explained by the variable unstable expansion of the CAG repeat.
TL;DR: A CAG trinucleotide repeat with CAA interruptions that was expanded in patients with SCA2, which is a member of a novel gene family and not highly polymorphic in normal individuals is identified.
Abstract: The gene for spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) has been mapped to 12q24.1. A 1.1-megabase contig in the candidate region was assembled in P1 artificial chromosome and bacterial artificial chromosome clones. Using this contig, we identified a CAG trinucleotide repeat with CAA interruptions that was expanded in patients with SCA2. In contrast to other unstable trinucleotide repeats, this CAG repeat was not highly polymorphic in normal individuals. In SCA2 patients, the repeat was perfect and expanded to 36-52 repeats. The most common disease allele contained (CAG)37, one of the shortest expansions seen in a CAG expansion syndrome. The repeat occurs in the 5'-coding region of SCA2 which is a member of a novel gene family.
TL;DR: The identification of ataxia genes raises hope that essential pathogenetic mechanisms causing SCA will become more and more apparent, and will enable the development of rational therapies for this group of disorders, which currently can only be treated symptomatically.
Abstract: Summary Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias are hereditary neurodegenerative disorders that are known as spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA) in genetic nomenclature. In the pregenomic era, ataxias were some of the most poorly understood neurological disorders; the unravelling of their molecular basis enabled precise diagnosis in vivo and explained many clinical phenomena such as anticipation and variable phenotypes even within one family. However, the discovery of many ataxia genes and loci in the past decade threatens to cause more confusion than optimism among clinicians. Therefore, the provision of guidance for genetic testing according to clinical findings and frequencies of SCA subtypes in different ethnic groups is a major challenge. The identification of ataxia genes raises hope that essential pathogenetic mechanisms causing SCA will become more and more apparent. Elucidation of the pathogenesis of SCA hopefully will enable the development of rational therapies for this group of disorders, which currently can only be treated symptomatically.
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