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Avalanche diode

About: Avalanche diode is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 3738 publications have been published within this topic receiving 54528 citations. The topic is also known as: avalanche diodes.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a semiconductor diode designed to operate as an oscillator when mounted in a suitable microwave cavity is described and analyzed, and it appears possible to obtain over 20 watts of ac power in continuous operation at 5 kmc.
Abstract: This paper describes and analyzes a proposed semiconductor diode designed to operate as an oscillator when mounted in a suitable microwave cavity. The frequency would be in the range extending from 1 to 50 kmc. The negative Q may be as low as 10 and the efficiency as high as 30 per cent. The diode is biased in reverse so as to establish a depletion, or space-charge, layer of fixed width in a relatively high resistance region, bounded by very low resistance end regions. The electric field has a maximum at one edge of the space-charge region, where hole-electron pairs are generated by internal secondary emission, or avalanche. The holes (or electrons) travel across the space-charge layer with constant velocity, thus producing a current through the diode. Because of the build-up time of the avalanche, and the transit time of the holes across the depletion layer, the alternating current is delayed by approximately one-half cycle relative to the ac voltage. Thus, power is delivered to the ac signal. When the diode is mounted in an inductive microwave cavity tuned to the capacity of the diode, an oscillation will build up. It appears possible to obtain over 20 watts of ac power in continuous operation at 5 kmc.

521 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
K. G. McKay1
TL;DR: In this article, an avalanche theory of breakdown at room temperature is proposed for semiconductors based on the assumption of approximately equal ionization rates for electrons and positive holes, and it is shown that this noise represents the unstable onset of breakdown and that all of the current flow in the breakdown region can be attributed to the current carried by the noise pulses.
Abstract: An avalanche theory of breakdown at room temperature is proposed for semiconductors based on the assumption of approximately equal ionization rates for electrons and positive holes. The problem of obtaining ionization rates from data obtained in inhomogeneous fields is solved exactly for two specific field distributions. Ionization rates for silicon thus calculated from experimental data on breakdown voltage and on prebreakdown multiplication for both linear-gradient and step junctions are in good agreement. The temperature coefficient of the ionization rate exhibits a similar internal consistency. It is concluded that internal field emission has not been observed in silicon.Detailed observations are reported of the pulse-type noise associated with breakdown. It is shown that this noise represents the unstable onset of breakdown and that, for the junctions studied, all of the current flow in the breakdown region can be attributed to the current carried by the noise pulses.

403 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a simple model is proposed to explain how a breakdown avalanche of secondary emission electrons can lead to surface flashover when an insulator in vacuum breaks down a few nanoseconds after high voltage is applied.
Abstract: A simple model is proposed to explain how a breakdown avalanche of secondary emission electrons can lead to surface flashover when an insulator in vacuum breaks down a few nanoseconds after high voltage is applied. The case of a plane insulator–vacuum interface perpendicular to parallel electrodes is considered. Positive surface charging is assumed to occur almost immediately upon application of the voltage, and the attendent secondary emission avalanche is assumed to be maintained at saturation throughout the prebreakdown time delay by field emission from the cathode electrode. Bombardment of the insulator by avalanche electrons desorbs a cloud of gas, which is partially ionized as it drifts through the swarm of electrons in the avalanche. The electric field at the cathode end of the insulator becomes enhanced as positive ions accumulate, which in turn increases the field emission and the rates of gas desorption and ionization. This and other regenerative processes rapidly lead to breakdown. Field enhanc...

380 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the design and fabrication of a single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) array system for counting and time-tagging single photons by means of a monolithic array sensor is discussed.
Abstract: This is the first of two serial papers dealing on single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) topics. Aim of the series is to discuss in depth the design and fabrication of our SPAD-A array system for two-dimensional single-photon imaging, able to count and time-tag single photons by means of a monolithic array sensor. This paper deals with the device structure and characterization. The second paper will present the developed fast electronics and will show the overall performance reached in passive, active, and gated regimes. In this first paper we review the working principle and the features of single-photon detector pixels, with particular attention to the monolithic array integration. Then we discuss design criteria, trade-offs, and how to chose operating conditions to attain best performances out of individual pixels. Finally, experimental data will be thoroughly discussed.

305 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202329
202271
202153
202069
201973
201872