About: Avicennia is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 507 publications have been published within this topic receiving 17293 citations.
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TL;DR: Mangroves are trees or bushes growing between the level of high water of spring tides and a level close to but above mean sea-level and the land animals found in mangrove forests include roosting flocks of fruit bats, fishing and insectivorous birds, and many insects are conspicuous.
Abstract: Publisher Summary Mangroves are trees or bushes growing between the level of high water of spring tides and a level close to but above mean sea-level Very few species of mangrove are deep rooted, or have persistent tap roots Almost all are shallow rooted but the root systems are often extensive and may cover a wide area Rhizophoraceous trees have seedlings with a long radicle which would seem well suited to develop into a tap root, but as soon as the seedling becomes established in the mud the radicle develops little further Trees of Avicennia and of Sonneratia develop several different kinds of roots The main rooting system consists of large cable roots which give off anchoring roots downwards and aerial roots or pneumatophores upwards These pneumatophores in their turn produce a large number of nutritive roots which penetrate the mineral-rich subsurface layers of the soil The land animals found in mangrove forests include roosting flocks of fruit bats, fishing and insectivorous birds, and many insects are conspicuous Of the marine animals, crabs and molluscs live permanently in the forest, and prawns and fishes come in on the tide to feed on the apparently abundant nutriment provided by the mangrove soils In South East Asia man uses mangrove areas for the establishment of ponds for the culture of fish and prawns, and for timber
University of Queensland1, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center2, National University of Singapore3, United States Geological Survey4, University of Cambridge5, University of Wollongong6, National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research7, Macquarie University8, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh City9
TL;DR: It is found that sediment availability can enable mangrove forests to maintain rates of soil-surface elevation gain that match or exceed that of sea-level rise, but for 69 per cent of the study sites the current rate of sea level rise exceeded the soil surface elevation gain.
Abstract: Sea-level rise can threaten the long-term sustainability of coastal communities and valuable ecosystems such as coral reefs, salt marshes and mangroves. Mangrove forests have the capacity to keep pace with sea-level rise and to avoid inundation through vertical accretion of sediments, which allows them to maintain wetland soil elevations suitable for plant growth. The Indo-Pacific region holds most of the world's mangrove forests, but sediment delivery in this region is declining, owing to anthropogenic activities such as damming of rivers. This decline is of particular concern because the Indo-Pacific region is expected to have variable, but high, rates of future sea-level rise. Here we analyse recent trends in mangrove surface elevation changes across the Indo-Pacific region using data from a network of surface elevation table instruments. We find that sediment availability can enable mangrove forests to maintain rates of soil-surface elevation gain that match or exceed that of sea-level rise, but for 69 per cent of our study sites the current rate of sea-level rise exceeded the soil surface elevation gain. We also present a model based on our field data, which suggests that mangrove forests at sites with low tidal range and low sediment supply could be submerged as early as 2070.
TL;DR: There is now sufficient evidence that mangrove species have proliferated at or near their poleward limits on at least five continents over the past half century, at the expense of salt marsh, consistent with the poleward extension of temperature thresholds coincident with sea-level rise.
Abstract: Mangroves are species of halophytic intertidal trees and shrubs derived from tropical genera and are likely delimited in latitudinal range by varying sensitivity to cold. There is now sufficient evidence that mangrove species have proliferated at or near their poleward limits on at least five continents over the past half century, at the expense of salt marsh. Avicennia is the most cold-tolerant genus worldwide, and is the subject of most of the observed changes. Avicennia germinans has extended in range along the USA Atlantic coast and expanded into salt marsh as a consequence of lower frost frequency and intensity in the southern USA. The genus has also expanded into salt marsh at its southern limit in Peru, and on the Pacific coast of Mexico. Mangroves of several species have expanded in extent and replaced salt marsh where protected within mangrove reserves in Guangdong Province, China. In south-eastern Australia, the expansion of Avicennia marina into salt marshes is now well documented, and Rhizophora stylosa has extended its range southward, while showing strong population growth within estuaries along its southern limits in northern New South Wales. Avicennia marina has extended its range southwards in South Africa. The changes are consistent with the poleward extension of temperature thresholds coincident with sea-level rise, although the specific mechanism of range extension might be complicated by limitations on dispersal or other factors. The shift from salt marsh to mangrove dominance on subtropical and temperate shorelines has important implications for ecological structure, function, and global change adaptation.
01 Jan 1984
TL;DR: A review of eight mangrove initiatives in the Philippines and evaluating the biophysical and institutional factors behind success or failure is presented in this article, where the authors recommend specific protocols (among them pushing for a 4:1 mangroves to pond ratio recommended for a healthy ecosystem) and wider policy directions to make mangroove rehabilitation in the country more effective.
Abstract: From half a million hectares at the turn of the century, Philippine mangroves have declined to only 120,000 ha while fish/shrimp culture ponds have increased to 232,000 ha Mangrove replanting programs have thus been popular, from community initiatives (1930s–1950s) to government-sponsored projects (1970s) to large-scale international development assistance programs (1980s to present) Planting costs escalated from less than US$100 to over $500/ha, with half of the latter amount allocated to administration, supervision and project management Despite heavy funds for massive rehabilitation of mangrove forests over the last two decades, the long-term survival rates of mangroves are generally low at 10–20% Poor survival can be mainly traced to two factors: inappropriate species and site selection The favored but unsuitable Rhizophora are planted in sandy substrates of exposed coastlines instead of the natural colonizers Avicennia and Sonneratia More significantly, planting sites are generally in the lower intertidal to subtidal zones where mangroves do not thrive rather than the optimal middle to upper intertidal levels, for a simple reason Such ideal sites have long been converted to brackishwater fishponds whereas the former are open access areas with no ownership problems The issue of pond ownership may be complex and difficult, but such should not outweigh ecological requirements: mangroves should be planted where fishponds are, not on seagrass beds and tidal flats where they never existed This paper reviews eight mangrove initiatives in the Philippines and evaluates the biophysical and institutional factors behind success or failure The authors recommend specific protocols (among them pushing for a 4:1 mangrove to pond ratio recommended for a healthy ecosystem) and wider policy directions to make mangrove rehabilitation in the country more effective
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