About: Bacillus anthracis is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 3994 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 128122 citation(s).
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: It is shown by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and by sequence analysis of nine chromosomal genes that B. anthracis should be considered a lineage of B. cereus and this determination is not only a formal matter of taxonomy but may also have consequences with respect to virulence and the potential of horizontal gene transfer within the B. Cereus group.
Abstract: Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis are members of the Bacillus cereus group of bacteria, demonstrating widely different phenotypes and pathological effects. B. anthracis causes the acute fatal disease anthrax and is a potential biological weapon due to its high toxicity. B. thuringiensis produces intracellular protein crystals toxic to a wide number of insect larvae and is the most commonly used biological pesticide worldwide. B. cereus is a probably ubiquitous soil bacterium and an opportunistic pathogen that is a common cause of food poisoning. In contrast to the differences in phenotypes, we show by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and by sequence analysis of nine chromosomal genes that B. anthracis should be considered a lineage of B. cereus. This determination is not only a formal matter of taxonomy but may also have consequences with respect to virulence and the potential of horizontal gene transfer within the B. cereus group.
TL;DR: It is shown that LF is a protease that cleaves the amino terminus of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases 1 and 2 and that this cleavage inactivates MAPKK1 and inhibits the MAPK signal transduction pathway.
Abstract: Anthrax lethal toxin, produced by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, is the major cause of death in animals infected with anthrax. One component of this toxin, lethal factor (LF), is suspected to be a metalloprotease, but no physiological substrates have been identified. Here it is shown that LF is a protease that cleaves the amino terminus of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases 1 and 2 (MAPKK1 and MAPKK2) and that this cleavage inactivates MAPKK1 and inhibits the MAPK signal transduction pathway. The identification of a cleavage site for LF may facilitate the development of LF inhibitors.
TL;DR: It is shown here that EF is an adenylate cyclase [ATP pyrophosphate-lyase (cyclizing), EC 4.6.1] produced by Bacillus anthracis in an inactive form and nearly equals that of the most active known cyclase.
Abstract: Anthrax toxin is composed of three proteins: protective antigen (PA), lethal factor (LF), and edema factor (EF). These proteins individually cause no known physiological effects in animals but in pairs produce two toxic actions. Injection of PA with LF causes death of rats in 60 min, whereas PA with EF causes edema in the skin of rabbits and guinea pigs. The mechanisms of action of these proteins have not been determined. It is shown here that EF is an adenylate cyclase [ATP pyrophosphate-lyase (cyclizing), EC 126.96.36.199] produced by Bacillus anthracis in an inactive form. Activation occurs upon contact with a heat-stable eukaryotic cell material. The specific activity of the resulting adenylate cyclase nearly equals that of the most active known cyclase. In Chinese hamster ovary cells exposed to PA and EF, cAMP concentrations increase without a lag to values about 200-fold above normal, remain high in the continued presence of toxin, and decrease rapidly after its removal. The increase in cAMP is completely blocked by excess LF. It is suggested that PA interacts with cells to form a receptor system by which EF and perhaps LF gain access to the cytoplasm.
TL;DR: The cloning of the human PA receptor is described using a genetic complementation approach and a soluble version of this domain can protect cells from the action of the toxin.
Abstract: The tripartite toxin secreted by Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, helps the bacterium evade the immune system and can kill the host during a systemic infection. Two components of the toxin enzymatically modify substrates within the cytosol of mammalian cells: oedema factor (OF) is an adenylate cyclase that impairs host defences through a variety of mechanisms including inhibiting phagocytosis; lethal factor (LF) is a zinc-dependent protease that cleaves mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase and causes lysis of macrophages. Protective antigen (PA), the third component, binds to a cellular receptor and mediates delivery of the enzymatic components to the cytosol. Here we describe the cloning of the human PA receptor using a genetic complementation approach. The receptor, termed ATR (anthrax toxin receptor), is a type I membrane protein with an extracellular von Willebrand factor A domain that binds directly to PA. In addition, a soluble version of this domain can protect cells from the action of the toxin.
TL;DR: The sequencing and analysis of the type strain B. cereus ATCC 14579 together with the gapped genome of B. anthracis A2012 enables the comparative analysis to clarify the phylogeny of the cereus group, and the latter to determine plasmid-independent species-specific markers.
Abstract: Bacillus cereus is an opportunistic pathogen causing food poisoning manifested by diarrhoeal or emetic syndromes1. It is closely related to the animal and human pathogen Bacillus anthracis and the insect pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis, the former being used as a biological weapon and the latter as a pesticide. B. anthracis and B. thuringiensis are readily distinguished from B. cereus by the presence of plasmid-borne specific toxins (B. anthracis and B. thuringiensis) and capsule (B. anthracis). But phylogenetic studies based on the analysis of chromosomal genes bring controversial results, and it is unclear whether B. cereus, B. anthracis and B. thuringiensis are varieties of the same species2 or different species3,4. Here we report the sequencing and analysis of the type strain B. cereus ATCC 14579. The complete genome sequence of B. cereus ATCC 14579 together with the gapped genome of B. anthracis A20125 enables us to perform comparative analysis, and hence to identify the genes that are conserved between B. cereus and B. anthracis, and the genes that are unique for each species. We use the former to clarify the phylogeny of the cereus group, and the latter to determine plasmid-independent species-specific markers.
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