Topic

# Background noise

About: Background noise is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 12671 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 219820 citation(s). The topic is also known as: ambient noise.

##### Papers

More filters

••

Bell Labs

^{1}01 Jan 1949-

TL;DR: A method is developed for representing any communication system geometrically and a number of results in communication theory are deduced concerning expansion and compression of bandwidth and the threshold effect.

Abstract: A method is developed for representing any communication system geometrically Messages and the corresponding signals are points in two "function spaces," and the modulation process is a mapping of one space into the other Using this representation, a number of results in communication theory are deduced concerning expansion and compression of bandwidth and the threshold effect Formulas are found for the maximum rate of transmission of binary digits over a system when the signal is perturbed by various types of noise Some of the properties of "ideal" systems which transmit at this maximum rate are discussed The equivalent number of binary digits per second for certain information sources is calculated

6,364 citations

••

TL;DR: A stand-alone noise suppression algorithm that resynthesizes a speech waveform and can be used as a pre-processor to narrow-band voice communications systems, speech recognition systems, or speaker authentication systems.

Abstract: A stand-alone noise suppression algorithm is presented for reducing the spectral effects of acoustically added noise in speech. Effective performance of digital speech processors operating in practical environments may require suppression of noise from the digital wave-form. Spectral subtraction offers a computationally efficient, processor-independent approach to effective digital speech analysis. The method, requiring about the same computation as high-speed convolution, suppresses stationary noise from speech by subtracting the spectral noise bias calculated during nonspeech activity. Secondary procedures are then applied to attenuate the residual noise left after subtraction. Since the algorithm resynthesizes a speech waveform, it can be used as a pre-processor to narrow-band voice communications systems, speech recognition systems, or speaker authentication systems.

4,550 citations

••

Abstract: The statistical properties of least-squares frequency analysis of unequally spaced data are examined. It is shown that, in the least-squares spectrum of gaussian noise, the reduction in the sum of squares at a particular frequency is aX22 variable. The reductions at different frequencies are not independent, as there is a correlation between the height of the spectrum at any two frequencies,f1 andf2, which is equal to the mean height of the spectrum due to a sinusoidal signal of frequencyf1, at the frequencyf2. These correlations reduce the distortion in the spectrum of a signal affected by noise. Some numerical illustrations of the properties of least-squares frequency spectra are also given.

4,365 citations

••

TL;DR: A localization algorithm motivated from least-squares fitting theory is constructed and tested both on image stacks of 30-nm fluorescent beads and on computer-generated images (Monte Carlo simulations), and results show good agreement with the derived precision equation.

Abstract: Calculation of the centroid of the images of individual fluorescent particles and molecules allows localization and tracking in light microscopes to a precision about an order of magnitude greater than the microscope resolution. The factors that limit the precision of these techniques are examined and a simple equation derived that describes the precision of localization over a wide range of conditions. In addition, a localization algorithm motivated from least-squares fitting theory is constructed and tested both on image stacks of 30-nm fluorescent beads and on computer-generated images (Monte Carlo simulations). Results from the algorithm show good agreement with the derived precision equation for both the simulations and actual images. The availability of a simple equation to describe localization precision helps investigators both in assessing the quality of an experimental apparatus and in directing attention to the factors that limit further improvement. The precision of localization scales as the inverse square root of the number of photons in the spot for the shot noise limited case and as the inverse of the number of photons for the background noise limited case. The optimal image magnification depends on the expected number of photons and background noise, but, for most cases of interest, the pixel size should be about equal to the standard deviation of the point spread function.

2,251 citations

••

TL;DR: An unbiased noise estimator is developed which derives the optimal smoothing parameter for recursive smoothing of the power spectral density of the noisy speech signal by minimizing a conditional mean square estimation error criterion in each time step.

Abstract: We describe a method to estimate the power spectral density of nonstationary noise when a noisy speech signal is given. The method can be combined with any speech enhancement algorithm which requires a noise power spectral density estimate. In contrast to other methods, our approach does not use a voice activity detector. Instead it tracks spectral minima in each frequency band without any distinction between speech activity and speech pause. By minimizing a conditional mean square estimation error criterion in each time step we derive the optimal smoothing parameter for recursive smoothing of the power spectral density of the noisy speech signal. Based on the optimally smoothed power spectral density estimate and the analysis of the statistics of spectral minima an unbiased noise estimator is developed. The estimator is well suited for real time implementations. Furthermore, to improve the performance in nonstationary noise we introduce a method to speed up the tracking of the spectral minima. Finally, we evaluate the proposed method in the context of speech enhancement and low bit rate speech coding with various noise types.

1,668 citations

3