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Ballot

About: Ballot is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 4350 publications have been published within this topic receiving 73904 citations. The topic is also known as: ballot paper & voting paper.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article found that voters who lack encyclopedic information about the content of electoral debates can nevertheless use information shortcuts to vote as though they were well informed, and that access to a particular class of widely available information shortcuts allowed badly informed voters to emulate the behavior of relatively well informed voters.
Abstract: Voters in mass elections are notorious for their apparent lack of information about relevant political matters. While some scholars argue that an electorate of well-informed voters is necessary for the production of responsive electoral outcomes, others argue that apparently ignorant voters will suffice because they can adapt their behavior to the complexity of electoral choice. To evaluate the validity of these arguments, I develop and analyze a survey of California voters who faced five complicated insurance reform ballot initiatives. I find that access to a particular class of widely available information shortcuts allowed badly informed voters to emulate the behavior of relatively well informed voters. This finding is suggestive of the conditions under which voters who lack encyclopedic information about the content of electoral debates can nevertheless use information shortcuts to vote as though they were well informed.

1,475 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors found that voters hold the government responsible for economic performance, rewarding or punishing it at the ballot box, regardless of the democracy they vote in, and that good times keep parties in office, bad times cast them out.
Abstract: Economic conditions shape election outcomes in the world's democracies. Good times keep parties in office, bad times cast them out. This proposition is robust, as the voluminous body of research reviewed here demonstrates. The strong findings at the macro level are founded on the economic voter, who holds the government responsible for economic performance, rewarding or punishing it at the ballot box. Although voters do not look exclusively at economic issues, they generally weigh those more heavily than any others, regardless of the democracy they vote in.

1,285 citations

Book
01 Jan 1988
TL;DR: In this article, the effect of economic conditions on voting behavior in the Western European democracies and the United States was studied in a cross-national study, and the authors found that voters "punish" rulers for bad times, but reward them for the good times.
Abstract: Does a government's fate at the ballot box hinge on the state of the economy? Is it inflation, unemployment, or income that makes the difference? What triggers economic voting for or against the incumbent - do voters look at their pocketbooks, or at the national accounts? Do economic voters "punish" rulers for bad times, but fail to "reward" them for the good times? Are voter's judgments based on past economic performance or future policy promises? These are some of the questions considered by Michael Lewis-Beck in this major cross-national study of the effect of economic conditions on voting behavior in the Western European democracies and the United States.

1,144 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Tate as mentioned in this paper analyzed the black presidential vote by region, income, age, and gender, identifying unique aspects of the Black experience as they shape political behavior, and to answer long-standing questions about that behaviour.
Abstract: The struggle for civil rights among Black Americans has moved into the voting booth. How such a shift came about - and what it means - is revealed in this reflection on black presidential politics in recent years. Since 1984, largely as a result of Jesse Jackson's presidential bid, blacks have been galvanized politically. Drawing on a substantial national survey of black voters, Katherine Tate shows how this process manifested itself at the polls in 1984 and 1988. In an analysis of the black presidential vote by region, income, age, and gender, she is able to identify unique aspects of the Black experience as they shape political behaviour, and to answer long-standing questions about that behaviour. How, for instance, does the rise of conservatism among blacks influence their voting patterns? Is class more powerful than race in determining voting? And what is the value of the notion of a black political party? In the 1990s, Tate suggests, Black organizations will continue to stress civil rights over economic development for one clear, compelling reason: Republican resistance to addressing black needs. In this, and in the friction engendered by affirmative action, she finds an explanation for the slackening of black voting. Tate does not, however, see blacks abandoning the political game. Instead, she predicts their continued search for leaders who prefer the ballot box to other kinds of protest, and for men and women who can deliver political programmes of racial equality.

551 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
09 May 2004
TL;DR: It is shown that voters, without any insider privileges, can cast unlimited votes without being detected by any mechanisms within the voting terminal software, and that any paperless electronic voting system might suffer similar flaws, despite any certification it could have otherwise received.
Abstract: With significant U.S. federal funds now available to replace outdated punch-card and mechanical voting systems, municipalities and states throughout the U.S. are adopting paperless electronic voting systems from a number of different vendors. We present a security analysis of the source code to one such machine used in a significant share of the market. Our analysis shows that this voting system is far below even the most minimal security standards applicable in other contexts. We identify several problems including unauthorized privilege escalation, incorrect use of cryptography, vulnerabilities to network threats, and poor software development processes. We show that voters, without any insider privileges, can cast unlimited votes without being detected by any mechanisms within the voting terminal software. Furthermore, we show that even the most serious of our outsider attacks could have been discovered and executed without access to the source code. In the face of such attacks, the usual worries about insider threats are not the only concerns; outsiders can do the damage. That said, we demonstrate that the insider threat is also quite considerable, showing that not only can an insider, such as a poll worker, modify the votes, but that insiders can also violate voter privacy and match votes with the voters who cast them. We conclude that this voting system is unsuitable for use in a general election. Any paperless electronic voting system might suffer similar flaws, despite any certification it could have otherwise received. We suggest that the best solutions are voting systems having a voter-verifiable audit trail, where a computerized voting system might print a paper ballot that can be read and verified by the voter.

549 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
2023161
2022358
2021182
2020166
2019201
2018159