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Barium titanate

About: Barium titanate is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 9796 publications have been published within this topic receiving 175437 citations.


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TL;DR: Ferroelectric ceramics have been the heart and soul of several multibillion dollar industries, ranging from high-dielectric-constant capacitors to later developments in piezoelectric transducers, positive temperature coefficient devices, and electrooptic light valves as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Ferroelectric ceramics were born in the early 1940s with the discovery of the phenomenon of ferroelectricity as the source of the unusually high dielectric constant in ceramic barium titanate capacitors. Since that time, they have been the heart and soul of several multibillion dollar industries, ranging from high-dielectric-constant capacitors to later developments in piezoelectric transducers, positive temperature coefficient devices, and electrooptic light valves. Materials based on two compositional systems, barium titanate and lead zirconate titanate, have dominated the field throughout their history. The more recent developments in the field of ferroelectric ceramics, such as medical ultrasonic composites, high-displacement piezoelectric actuators (Moonies, RAINBOWS), photostrictors, and thin and thick films for piezoelectric and integrated-circuit applications have served to keep the industry young amidst its growing maturity. Various ceramic formulations, their form (bulk, films), fabrication, function (properties), and future are described in relation to their ferroelectric nature and specific areas of application.

3,442 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Ferroelectric, dielectric, and piezoelectric properties of ferroelectric thin films and ceramics are reviewed with the aim of providing an insight into different processes which may affect the behaviour of Ferroelectric devices.
Abstract: Ferroelectric, dielectric and piezoelectric properties of ferroelectric thin films and ceramics are reviewed with the aim of providing an insight into different processes which may affect the behaviour of ferroelectric devices, such as ferroelectric memories and micro-electro-mechanical systems. Taking into consideration recent advances in this field, topics such as polarization switching, polarization fatigue, effects of defects, depletion layers, and depolarization fields on hysteresis loop behaviour, and contributions of domain-wall displacement to dielectric and piezoelectric properties are discussed. An introduction into dielectric, pyroelectric, piezoelectric and elastic properties of ferroelectric materials, symmetry considerations, coupling of electro-mechanical and thermal properties, and definitions of relevant ferroelectric phenomena are provided.

1,835 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors studied the dielectric properties, lattice and microstructure of ceramic BaTiO3 showing grain sizes of 0.3-100 μm and showed that at grain sizes <10 μm the width of ferroelectric 90° domains decreases proportionally to the square root of the grain diameter.
Abstract: Dielectric properties, lattice‐ and microstructure of ceramic BaTiO3 showing grain sizes of 0.3–100 μm were studied. At grain sizes <10 μm the width of ferroelectric 90° domains decreases proportionally to the square root of the grain diameter. The decreasing width of the domains can be theoretically explained by the equilibrium of elastic field energy and domain wall energy. The smaller the grains, the more the dielectric and the elastic constants are determined by the contribution of 90° domain walls. The permittivity below the Curie point shows a pronounced maximum er ≊5000 at grain sizes 0.8–1 μm. At grain sizes <0.7 μm the permittivity strongly decreases and the lattice gradually changes from tetragonal to pseudocubic.

1,742 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Walter J. Merz1
TL;DR: In this paper, the nucleation and growth of ferroelectric domains in barium titanate have been studied as a function of applied electric field and temperature, and experiments were made on thin single-crystal plates normal to $c$ the polar direction.
Abstract: The nucleation and growth of ferroelectric domains in barium titanate have been studied as a function of applied electric field and temperature. The optical and electrical measurements were made on thin single-crystal plates normal to $c$, the polar direction. When the electric field applied along this direction is reversed, new domains with opposite polarization are formed. The manner of growth of these domains is very different from that of domain growth in ferromagnetic materials. The sidewise motion of the 180\ifmmode^\circ\else\textdegree\fi{} side walls (walls between domains with antiparallel polarization) which is common in ferromagnetic crystals is almost never found in barium titanate. Instead its polarization is changed by the formation of very many new anti-parallel domains which are extremely thin (${10}^{\ensuremath{-}4}$ cm) and appear to grow only in the forward direction. The explanation of this behavior is found in the weak coupling between the dipoles perpendicular to the dipole direction. The wall thickness is small, of the order of one to a few lattice constants; the wall energy in BaTi${\mathrm{O}}_{3}$ is of the order of 10 erg/${\mathrm{cm}}^{2}$. Electrical pulsing experiments substantiate the optical observations very clearly. Pulsing the samples at different temperatures shows that the nucleation rate of new domains is accelerated at elevated temperatures. Furthermore, the growth of the new domains is faster at higher temperatures. Experimental results are presented showing how the switching current and the switching time depend on applied electrical field, on temperature, and on the size of the sample.

1,097 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, an analysis of ac impedance data using the complex impedance plane representation gives the dc resistance of polycrystalline barium titanate (PTCR) ceramics.
Abstract: Polycrystalline barium titanate that has been doped to give a positive temperature coefficient of resistance (PTCR) effect is an inhomogeneous material electrically. Analysis of ac impedance data using the complex impedance plane representation gives the dc resistance of PTCR ceramics. By additional use of the complex electric modulus formalism to analyze the same data, the inhomogeneous nature of the ceramics may be probed. This reveals the presence of two, sometimes three elements in the equivalent circuit. Grain‐boundary and bulk effects may be distinguished from capacitance data: grain‐boundary effects have temperature‐independent capacitances, whereas bulk effects show a capacitance maximum at the Curie point and Curie–Weiss behavior above the Curie point. Both grain‐boundary and bulk effects appear to contribute to the PTCR effect. These results reveal limitations in current theories of the PTCR effect.

1,083 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
2023187
2022390
2021279
2020359
2019349
2018381