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Batch production

About: Batch production is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 1613 publications have been published within this topic receiving 24098 citations.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, various technological methods to produce biodiesel being used in industries and academia are reviewed, and the most common types of catalysts; homogeneous liquids and heterogeneous solids, are discussed at length in the paper.

619 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a comparison between two different technologies for metal part fabrication, the traditional high-pressure die-casting and the direct metal laser sintering additive technique, is done with consideration of both the geometric possibilities of AM and the economic point of view.
Abstract: Additive manufacturing (AM) of metal parts combined with part redesign has a positive repercussion on cost saving. In fact, a remarkable cost reduction can be obtained if the component shape is modified to exploit AM potentialities. This paper deals with the evaluation of the production volume for which AM techniques result competitive with respect to conventional processes for the production of end-usable metal parts. For this purpose, a comparison between two different technologies for metal part fabrication, the traditional high-pressure die-casting and the direct metal laser sintering additive technique, is done with consideration of both the geometric possibilities of AM and the economic point of view. A design for additive manufacturing approach is adopted. Costs models of both processes are identified and then applied to an aeronautical component selected as case study. This research evidences that currently additive techniques can be economically convenient and competitive to traditional processes for small to medium batch production of metal parts.

542 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A new, sequential algorithm is presented, which is faster in typical applications and is especially advantageous for image sequences: the KL basis calculation is done with much lower delay and allows for dynamic updating of image databases.
Abstract: The Karhunen-Loeve (KL) transform is an optimal method for approximating a set of vectors or images, which was used in image processing and computer vision for several tasks such as face and object recognition. Its computational demands and its batch calculation nature have limited its application. Here we present a new, sequential algorithm for calculating the KL basis, which is faster in typical applications and is especially advantageous for image sequences: the KL basis calculation is done with much lower delay and allows for dynamic updating of image databases. Systematic tests of the implemented algorithm show that these advantages are indeed obtained with the same accuracy available from batch KL algorithms.

423 citations

01 Jan 2016
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors compared the costs of a dedicated continuous manufacturing process to synthesize an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and formulate it into tablets for a production scale of 2000 t of tablets per year, with raw material cost, production yield and API loading varied over broad ranges.
Abstract: The capital, operating, and overall costs of a dedicated continuous manufacturing process to synthesize an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and formulate it into tablets are estimated for a production scale of 2000 t of tablets per year, with raw material cost, production yield, and API loading varied over broad ranges. Costs are compared to batch production in a dedicated facility. Synthesis begins with a key organic intermediate three synthetic steps before the final API; results are given for key intermediate (KI) costs of $100 to $3000/kg, with drug loadings in the tablet of 10 and 50 wt %. The novel continuous process described here is being developed by an interdisciplinary team of 20 researchers. Since yields are not yet well-known, and continuous processes typically have better yields than batch ones, the overall yields of the continuous processes with recycling were set equal to that of the batch process. Without recycling, yields are 10% lower, but less equipment is required. The continuous process has not been built at large scale, so Wroth factors and other assumptions were used to estimate costs. Capital expenditures for continuous production were estimated to be 20 to 76% lower, depending on the drug loading, KI cost, and process chosen; operating expenditures were estimated to be between 40% lower and 9% higher. The novel continuous process with recycling coupled to a novel direct tablet formation process yields the best overall cost savings in each drug loading/KI price scenario: estimated savings range from 9 to 40%. Overall cost savings are also given assuming the yield in the continuous case is 10% above and 10% below that of the batch process. Even when yields in the continuous case are lower than in the batch case, savings can still be achieved because the labor, materials handling, CapEx, and other savings compensate.

374 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors compared the capital, operating, and overall costs of a dedicated continuous manufacturing process to synthesize an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and formulate it into tablets for a production scale of 2000 t of tablets per year.
Abstract: The capital, operating, and overall costs of a dedicated continuous manufacturing process to synthesize an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and formulate it into tablets are estimated for a production scale of 2000 t of tablets per year, with raw material cost, production yield, and API loading varied over broad ranges. Costs are compared to batch production in a dedicated facility. Synthesis begins with a key organic intermediate three synthetic steps before the final API; results are given for key intermediate (KI) costs of $100 to $3000/kg, with drug loadings in the tablet of 10 and 50 wt %. The novel continuous process described here is being developed by an interdisciplinary team of 20 researchers. Since yields are not yet well-known, and continuous processes typically have better yields than batch ones, the overall yields of the continuous processes with recycling were set equal to that of the batch process. Without recycling, yields are 10% lower, but less equipment is required. The continuou...

373 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20238
202224
202149
202079
201952
201871