Topic

# Bayesian network

About: Bayesian network is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 17014 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 431891 citation(s). The topic is also known as: belief network & Bayes net.

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

##### Papers

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28 Jun 2001TL;DR: This work presents iterative parameter estimation algorithms for conditional random fields and compares the performance of the resulting models to HMMs and MEMMs on synthetic and natural-language data.

Abstract: We present conditional random fields , a framework for building probabilistic models to segment and label sequence data. Conditional random fields offer several advantages over hidden Markov models and stochastic grammars for such tasks, including the ability to relax strong independence assumptions made in those models. Conditional random fields also avoid a fundamental limitation of maximum entropy Markov models (MEMMs) and other discriminative Markov models based on directed graphical models, which can be biased towards states with few successor states. We present iterative parameter estimation algorithms for conditional random fields and compare the performance of the resulting models to HMMs and MEMMs on synthetic and natural-language data.

12,343 citations

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TL;DR: A generic message-passing algorithm, the sum-product algorithm, that operates in a factor graph, that computes-either exactly or approximately-various marginal functions derived from the global function.

Abstract: Algorithms that must deal with complicated global functions of many variables often exploit the manner in which the given functions factor as a product of "local" functions, each of which depends on a subset of the variables. Such a factorization can be visualized with a bipartite graph that we call a factor graph, In this tutorial paper, we present a generic message-passing algorithm, the sum-product algorithm, that operates in a factor graph. Following a single, simple computational rule, the sum-product algorithm computes-either exactly or approximately-various marginal functions derived from the global function. A wide variety of algorithms developed in artificial intelligence, signal processing, and digital communications can be derived as specific instances of the sum-product algorithm, including the forward/backward algorithm, the Viterbi algorithm, the iterative "turbo" decoding algorithm, Pearl's (1988) belief propagation algorithm for Bayesian networks, the Kalman filter, and certain fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithms.

6,196 citations

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31 Jul 2009TL;DR: The framework of probabilistic graphical models, presented in this book, provides a general approach for causal reasoning and decision making under uncertainty, allowing interpretable models to be constructed and then manipulated by reasoning algorithms.

Abstract: Most tasks require a person or an automated system to reason -- to reach conclusions based on available information The framework of probabilistic graphical models, presented in this book, provides a general approach for this task The approach is model-based, allowing interpretable models to be constructed and then manipulated by reasoning algorithms These models can also be learned automatically from data, allowing the approach to be used in cases where manually constructing a model is difficult or even impossible Because uncertainty is an inescapable aspect of most real-world applications, the book focuses on probabilistic models, which make the uncertainty explicit and provide models that are more faithful to reality Probabilistic Graphical Models discusses a variety of models, spanning Bayesian networks, undirected Markov networks, discrete and continuous models, and extensions to deal with dynamical systems and relational data For each class of models, the text describes the three fundamental cornerstones: representation, inference, and learning, presenting both basic concepts and advanced techniques Finally, the book considers the use of the proposed framework for causal reasoning and decision making under uncertainty The main text in each chapter provides the detailed technical development of the key ideas Most chapters also include boxes with additional material: skill boxes, which describe techniques; case study boxes, which discuss empirical cases related to the approach described in the text, including applications in computer vision, robotics, natural language understanding, and computational biology; and concept boxes, which present significant concepts drawn from the material in the chapter Instructors (and readers) can group chapters in various combinations, from core topics to more technically advanced material, to suit their particular needs

6,064 citations

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Microsoft

^{1}TL;DR: In this article, the authors compare the predictive accuracy of various methods in a set of representative problem domains, including correlation coefficients, vector-based similarity calculations, and statistical Bayesian methods.

Abstract: Collaborative filtering or recommender systems use a database about user preferences to predict additional topics or products a new user might like. In this paper we describe several algorithms designed for this task, including techniques based on correlation coefficients, vector-based similarity calculations, and statistical Bayesian methods. We compare the predictive accuracy of the various methods in a set of representative problem domains. We use two basic classes of evaluation metrics. The first characterizes accuracy over a set of individual predictions in terms of average absolute deviation. The second estimates the utility of a ranked list of suggested items. This metric uses an estimate of the probability that a user will see a recommendation in an ordered list. Experiments were run for datasets associated with 3 application areas, 4 experimental protocols, and the 2 evaluation metrics for the various algorithms. Results indicate that for a wide range of conditions, Bayesian networks with decision trees at each node and correlation methods outperform Bayesian-clustering and vector-similarity methods. Between correlation and Bayesian networks, the preferred method depends on the nature of the dataset, nature of the application (ranked versus one-by-one presentation), and the availability of votes with which to make predictions. Other considerations include the size of database, speed of predictions, and learning time.

4,883 citations

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Microsoft

^{1}TL;DR: Several algorithms designed for collaborative filtering or recommender systems are described, including techniques based on correlation coefficients, vector-based similarity calculations, and statistical Bayesian methods, to compare the predictive accuracy of the various methods in a set of representative problem domains.

Abstract: Collaborative filtering or recommender systems use a database about user preferences to predict additional topics or products a new user might like. In this paper we describe several algorithms designed for this task, including techniques based on correlation coefficients, vector-based similarity calculations, and statistical Bayesian methods. We compare the predictive accuracy of the various methods in a set of representative problem domains. We use two basic classes of evaluation metrics. The first characterizes accuracy over a set of individual predictions in terms of average absolute deviation. The second estimates the utility of a ranked list of suggested items. This metric uses an estimate of the probability that a user will see a recommendation in an ordered list.
Experiments were run for datasets associated with 3 application areas, 4 experimental protocols, and the 2 evaluation metr rics for the various algorithms. Results indicate that for a wide range of conditions, Bayesian networks with decision trees at each node and correlation methods outperform Bayesian-clustering and vector-similarity methods. Between correlation and Bayesian networks, the preferred method depends on the nature of the dataset, nature of the application (ranked versus one-by-one presentation), and the availability of votes with which to make predictions. Other considerations include the size of database, speed of predictions, and learning time.

4,454 citations