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Beamforming

About: Beamforming is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 29986 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 472656 citation(s). The topic is also known as: spatial filtering.
Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Processing the signals received on an array of sensors for the location of the emitter is of great enough interest to have been treated under many special case assumptions. The general problem considers sensors with arbitrary locations and arbitrary directional characteristics (gain/phase/polarization) in a noise/interference environment of arbitrary covariance matrix. This report is concerned first with the multiple emitter aspect of this problem and second with the generality of solution. A description is given of the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm, which provides asymptotically unbiased estimates of 1) number of incident wavefronts present; 2) directions of arrival (DOA) (or emitter locations); 3) strengths and cross correlations among the incident waveforms; 4) noise/interference strength. Examples and comparisons with methods based on maximum likelihood (ML) and maximum entropy (ME), as well as conventional beamforming are included. An example of its use as a multiple frequency estimator operating on time series is included.

11,499 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The article consists of background material and of the basic problem formulation, and introduces spectral-based algorithmic solutions to the signal parameter estimation problem and contrast these suboptimal solutions to parametric methods.
Abstract: The quintessential goal of sensor array signal processing is the estimation of parameters by fusing temporal and spatial information, captured via sampling a wavefield with a set of judiciously placed antenna sensors. The wavefield is assumed to be generated by a finite number of emitters, and contains information about signal parameters characterizing the emitters. A review of the area of array processing is given. The focus is on parameter estimation methods, and many relevant problems are only briefly mentioned. We emphasize the relatively more recent subspace-based methods in relation to beamforming. The article consists of background material and of the basic problem formulation. Then we introduce spectral-based algorithmic solutions to the signal parameter estimation problem. We contrast these suboptimal solutions to parametric methods. Techniques derived from maximum likelihood principles as well as geometric arguments are covered. Later, a number of more specialized research topics are briefly reviewed. Then, we look at a number of real-world problems for which sensor array processing methods have been applied. We also include an example with real experimental data involving closely spaced emitters and highly correlated signals, as well as a manufacturing application example.

3,984 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Apr 1988-IEEE Assp Magazine
TL;DR: An overview of beamforming from a signal-processing perspective is provided, with an emphasis on recent research.
Abstract: An overview of beamforming from a signal-processing perspective is provided, with an emphasis on recent research. Data-independent, statistically optimum, adaptive, and partially adaptive beamforming are discussed. Basic notation, terminology, and concepts are included. Several beamformer implementations are briefly described. >

3,836 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 2002-
TL;DR: This work shows that true beamforming gains can be achieved when there are sufficient users, even though very limited channel feedback is needed, and proposes the use of multiple transmit antennas to induce large and fast channel fluctuations so that multiuser diversity can still be exploited.
Abstract: Multiuser diversity is a form of diversity inherent in a wireless network, provided by independent time-varying channels across the different users. The diversity benefit is exploited by tracking the channel fluctuations of the users and scheduling transmissions to users when their instantaneous channel quality is near the peak. The diversity gain increases with the dynamic range of the fluctuations and is thus limited in environments with little scattering and/or slow fading. In such environments, we propose the use of multiple transmit antennas to induce large and fast channel fluctuations so that multiuser diversity can still be exploited. The scheme can be interpreted as opportunistic beamforming and we show that true beamforming gains can be achieved when there are sufficient users, even though very limited channel feedback is needed. Furthermore, in a cellular system, the scheme plays an additional role of opportunistic nulling of the interference created on users of adjacent cells. We discuss the design implications of implementing. this scheme in a complete wireless system.

3,015 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Dec 1993-
Abstract: The paper considers an application of blind identification to beamforming. The key point is to use estimates of directional vectors rather than resort to their hypothesised value. By using estimates of the directional vectors obtained via blind identification, i.e. without knowing the array manifold, beamforming is made robust with respect to array deformations, distortion of the wave front, pointing errors etc., so that neither array calibration nor physical modelling is necessary. Rather suprisingly, ‘blind beamformers’ may outperform ‘informed beamformers’ in a plausible range of parameters, even when the array is perfectly known to the informed beamformer. The key assumption on which blind identification relies is the statistical independence of the sources, which is exploited using fourth-order cumulants. A computationally efficient technique is presented for the blind estimation of directional vectors, based on joint diagonalisation of fourth-order cumulant matrices; its implementation is described, and its performance is investigated by numerical experiments.

2,764 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202226
20211,895
20202,285
20192,343
20182,118
20172,004

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Robert W. Heath

163 papers, 18.2K citations

Rui Zhang

154 papers, 12.2K citations

Lajos Hanzo

94 papers, 1.7K citations

Bjorn Ottersten

70 papers, 3K citations

Zhiguo Ding

56 papers, 1.4K citations