About: Bengali is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 2163 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 16570 citation(s).
01 Feb 1991-Natural Language and Linguistic Theory
TL;DR: It is argued that the Bengali facts support a typology of intonational tones that includes only pitch accents and boundary tones, and that the docking sites for boundary tones are the phrase edges provided under the theory of the Prosodic Hierarchy (Selkirk 1980).
Abstract: This paper proposes a phonological analysis of the Bengali intonational system, using a descriptive framework developed by Pierrehumbert (1980) and others. Our analysis bears on a number of theoretical points. We argue that the Bengali facts support a typology of intonational tones that includes only pitch accents and boundary tones, and that the docking sites for boundary tones are the phrase edges provided under the theory of the Prosodic Hierarchy (Selkirk 1980). We show that Bengali intonational contours are governed by the obligatory Contour Principle (OCP), which forbids adjacent identical tones. Underlying contours that violate the OCP are converted to permissible surface forms by a phonological rule. We also bring Bengali data to bear on a long-standing controversy concerning phrasal stress: Bengali can be shown to have a default, phonologically assigned phrasal stress pattern; thus phrasal stress assignment cannot be reduced exclusively to focus and other semantic factors.
01 Oct 2014-
TL;DR: A new dataset is described, which contains Facebook posts and comments that exhibit code mixing between Bengali, English and Hindi, and it is found that the dictionary-based approach is surpassed by supervised classification and sequence labelling, and that it is important to take contextual clues into consideration.
Abstract: In social media communication, multilingual speakers often switch between languages, and, in such an environment, automatic language identification becomes both a necessary and challenging task. In this paper, we describe our work in progress on the problem of automatic language identification for the language of social media. We describe a new dataset that we are in the process of creating, which contains Facebook posts and comments that exhibit code mixing between Bengali, English and Hindi. We also present some preliminary word-level language identification experiments using this dataset. Different techniques are employed, including a simple unsupervised dictionary-based approach, supervised word-level classification with and without contextual clues, and sequence labelling using Conditional Random Fields. We find that the dictionary-based approach is surpassed by supervised classification and sequence labelling, and that it is important to take contextual clues into consideration.
01 Apr 2011-Journal of Pragmatics
Abstract: Sociolinguists have long recognized that language is a social construct, and have found elusive any firm definition of what constitutes a language in relation to overlapping varieties. On the other hand, it is long established that language is recruited by nations, communities and individuals for its symbolic value and distinctiveness. Whereas the first of these positions views language as fluid and changing, with permeable boundaries, the second stresses the fixed, rigid nature of language. This paper describes how these two positions are played out in the multilingual contexts of four English cities, in complementary schools where young students learn Bengali, Cantonese, Gujarati, Mandarin, and Turkish. In the research reported here we observed a broad range of multilingual practices across a variety of settings in schools, and at the boundaries of school and home. From these practices we identify two seemingly contradictory positions in relation to participants’ bilingualism: an ideology which argues for ‘language separation’ and one in which ‘flexible bilingualism’ flourishes as a practice. These two positions can be said to illustrate the dynamic tension described in sociolinguistic research, which has often viewed language as fluid and overlapping, while at the same time acknowledging language as a social construct which demarcates and reifies identities. The paper looks at how students and teachers simultaneously lived both ‘separate’ and ‘flexible’ positions, and navigated between them interactively and discursively. Our analysis suggests that relations between ‘language’ and ‘ideology’ are far from straightforward for the young people and teachers in complementary schools. The heteroglossic reality of multilingual practice, with its flexible movement across and between ‘languages’, is underpinned by the social structures of which such interactions are a part.
Willem van Schendel1•Institutions (1)
12 Feb 2009-
Abstract: Bangladesh is a new name for an old land whose history is little known to the wider world. A country chiefly famous in the West for media images of poverty, underdevelopment, and natural disasters, Bangladesh did not exist as an independent state until 1971. Willem van Schendel's history reveals the country's vibrant, colourful past and its diverse culture as it navigates the extraordinary twists and turns that have created modern Bangladesh. The story begins with the early geological history of the delta which has decisively shaped Bangladesh society. The narrative then moves chronologically through the era of colonial rule, the partition of Bengal, the war with Pakistan and the birth of Bangladesh as an independent state. In so doing, it reveals the forces that have made Bangladesh what it is today. This is an eloquent introduction to a fascinating country and its resilient and inventive people.
22 Jun 2000-
Abstract: This rich ethnography explores beliefs and practices surrounding aging in a rural Bengali village. Sarah Lamb focuses on how villagers' visions of aging are tied to the making and unmaking of gendered selves and social relations over a lifetime. Lamb uses a focus on age as a means not only to open up new ways of thinking about South Asian social life, but also to contribute to contemporary theories of gender, the body, and culture, which have been hampered, the book argues, by a static focus on youth. Lamb's own experiences in the village are an integral part of her book and ably convey the cultural particularities of rural Bengali life and Bengali notions of modernity. In exploring ideals of family life and the intricate interrelationships between and within generations, she enables us to understand how people in the village construct, and deconstruct, their lives.At the same time, her study extends beyond India to contemporary attitudes about aging in the United States. This accessible and engaging book is about deeply human issues and will appeal not only to specialists in South Asian culture, but to anyone interested in families, aging, gender, religion, and the body.