About: Benzoic acid is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 11832 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 167127 citation(s). The topic is also known as: Retardex & E210.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Water proved to be essential for the formation of well-ordered Zr-bdc-NH(2) and the first single-crystal structural analysis of a ZR-based metal-organic framework.
Abstract: We present an investigation on the influence of benzoic acid, acetic acid, and water on the syntheses of the Zr-based metal-organic frameworks Zr-bdc (UiO-66), Zr-bdc-NH(2) (UiO-66-NH(2)), Zr-bpdc (UiO-67), and Zr-tpdc-NH(2) (UiO-68-NH(2)) (H(2) bdc: terephthalic acid, H(2) bpdc: biphenyl-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid, H(2) tpdc: terphenyl-4,4''-dicarboxylic acid). By varying the amount of benzoic or acetic acid, the synthesis of Zr-bdc can be modulated. With increasing concentration of the modulator, the products change from intergrown to individual crystals, the size of which can be tuned. Addition of benzoic acid also affects the size and morphology of Zr-bpdc and, additionally, makes the synthesis of Zr-bpdc highly reproducible. The control of crystal and particle size is proven by powder XRD, SEM and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Ar sorption experiments show that the materials from modulated syntheses can be activated and that they exhibit high specific surface areas. Water proved to be essential for the formation of well-ordered Zr-bdc-NH(2) . Zr-tpdc-NH(2), a material with a structure analogous to that of Zr-bdc and Zr-bpdc, but with the longer, functionalized linker 2'-amino-1,1':4',1''-terphenyl-4,4''-dicarboxylic acid, was obtained as single crystals. This allowed the first single-crystal structural analysis of a Zr-based metal-organic framework.
TL;DR: Xanthi-nc becomes resistant to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and produces b proteins when injected with the interferon inducer polyacrylic acid and injection of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) induces resistance and the formation of new proteins in the White Burley and Samsun NN cultivars of tobacco.
Abstract: Tobacco cv. Xanthi-nc becomes resistant to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and produces b proteins when injected with the interferon inducer polyacrylic acid. Injection of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), benzoic acid, or salicylic acid also induces this response in Xanthi-nc. Injection of aspirin, benzoic acid, or salicylic acid similarly induces resistance and the formation of new proteins in the White Burley and Samsun NN cultivars of tobacco.
TL;DR: In this article, the reaction of carboxylic acid with triphenyl phosphine and diethyl azodicarboxylate in the presence of an alcohol has been studied.
Abstract: When n-valeric acid was treated with allyl diethyl phosphite and diethyl azodicarboxylate, allyl valeriate and diethyl N-(diethyl)phosphoryl hydrazodicarboxylate were obtained in good yields. Similarly ethyl benzoate was obtained in a nearly quantitative yield by the reaction of benzoic acid with triethyl phosphite and diethyl azodicarboxylate. The reaction of carboxylic acid with triphenyl phosphine and diethyl azodicarboxylate in the presence of an alcohol resulted in the formation of the corresponding esters of the carboxylic acid, triphenyl phosphine oxide, and diethyl hydrazodicarboxylate. The mechanisms of these reactions are also discussed.
TL;DR: A crystal engineering strategy for designing cocrystals of pharmaceuticals increases the probability of discovering useful cocry crystals and decreases the number of experiments that are needed by selecting API:guest combinations that have the greatest potential of forming energetically and structurally robust interactions.
Abstract: A crystal engineering strategy for designing cocrystals of pharmaceuticals is presented. The strategy increases the probability of discovering useful cocrystals and decreases the number of experiments that are needed by selecting API:guest combinations that have the greatest potential of forming energetically and structurally robust interactions. Our approach involves multicomponent cocrystallization of hydrochloride salts, wherein strong hydrogen bond donors are introduced to interact with chloride ions that are underutilized as hydrogen bond acceptors. The strategy is particularly effective in producing cocrystals of amine hydrochlorides with neutral organic acid guests. As an example of the approach, we report the discovery of three cocrystals containing fluoxetine hydrochloride (1), which is the active ingredient in the popular antidepressant Prozac. A 1:1 cocrystal was prepared with 1 and benzoic acid (2), while succinic acid and fumaric acid were each cocrystallized with 1 to provide 2:1 cocrystals of fluoxetine hydrochloride:succinic acid (3) and fluoxetine hydrochloride:fumaric acid (4). The presence of a guest molecule along with fluoxetine hydrochloride in the same crystal structure results in a solid phase with altered physical properties when compared to the known crystalline form of fluoxetine hydrochloride. On the basis of intrinsic dissolution rate experiments, cocrystals 2 and 4 dissolve more slowly than 1, and 3 dissolves more quickly than 1. Powder dissolution experiments demonstrated that the solid present at equilibrium corresponds to the cocrystal for 2 and 4, while 3 completely converted to 1 upon prolonged slurry in water.
TL;DR: In this article, it was shown that the observed apparent first-order dependence and the change in rate constant with concentration could by explained in terms of the integrated form of the Langmuir adsorption isotherm.
Abstract: Results of the destruction of organic solutes in a simple, thin film TiO2 reactor are described. The reactor was illuminated with a 20-W blacklight UV fluorescent tube and the aqueous stream containing the organic solute flowed past the stationary photocatalyst. In the continuous recirculation mode, the destructive rate of each solute obeyed approximately first-order kinetics. The reaction rate constant decreased with increasing solute concentration. The times for 50% destruction of 500 cmT of 10 M solutions of each of the solutes salicylic acid, phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol, benzoic acid, 2-naphthol, naphthalene, and fluorescein were 7.1, 7.2, 8.2, 8.7, 6.9, 8.5, 4.3, and 6.4 min, respectively. It was found that the observed apparent first-order dependence and the change in rate constant with concentration could by explained in terms of the integrated form of the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. A marked dependence of the destruction rate on flow rate was observed and an expression developed which allows the calculation of the destruction curve with good precision at any solute concentration and flow rate. A corresponding curve was observed for the formation of carbon dioxide from salicylic acid solution. It was shown that hydroxylation of the aromatic ring to give salicylic acid is a minormore » reaction path in the destruction of benzoic acid. The maximum quantum yield for the destruction of salicyclic acid at 25C was found to be 0.022. The activation energy for the photooxidation of salicyclic acid was determined to be 11.0 +/- 0.8 kJ mol .« less
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