About: Benzoylphenylurea is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 174 publications have been published within this topic receiving 2893 citations.
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TL;DR: The results showed here demonstrated the first case of fluazuron resistance in R. microplus and the first tick population resistant to six classes of acaricides in Brazil.
Abstract: The control of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus is based mainly on the use of chemical acaricides, which has contributed to the emerging problem of selection of resistant tick populations. Currently, there are six main classes of acaricides commercially available in Brazil to control cattle ticks, with fluazuron, a tick growth regulator with acaricidal properties, being the only active ingredient with no previous reports of resistance. Ticks (designated the Jaguar strain) were collected in a beef cattle ranch located at Rio Grande do Sul state, Southern Brazil, after a complaint of fluazuron treatment failure. To characterise the resistance of this strain against acaricides, larval tests were performed and showed that the Jaguar strain was resistant to all of the drugs tested: cypermethrin (resistance ratio, RR=31.242), chlorpyriphos (RR=103.926), fipronil (RR=4.441), amitraz (RR=11.907) and ivermectin (3.081). A field trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of fluazuron treatment in heifers that had been experimentally infested with the Jaguar or a susceptible strain. Between 14 and 28 days after treatment, the average efficacy in cattle experimentally infested with the susceptible strain was 96%, while for the Jaguar strain the efficacy was zero. Additionally, the Jaguar strain response to fluazuron was evaluated in vitro using a modified adult immersion test (AIT) and the artificial feeding assay (AFA). With the AIT, 50 ppm of fluazuron inhibited 99% of larvae hatching in the susceptible strain (POA) and less than 50% in the Jaguar strain. Results of the AFA showed a larval hatching rate of 67% at 2.5 ppm of fluazuron with the Jaguar strain; conversely, only 3% of larvae of the susceptible strain hatched at the same fluazuron concentration. The results showed here demonstrated the first case of fluazuron resistance in R. microplus and the first tick population resistant to six classes of acaricides in Brazil.
TL;DR: Evaluating the applicability of different calibration approaches in a multi- and single-residue analysis of modern pesticides in plant matrices using liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry found echo-peak internal standard calibration to be a novel technique providing the possibility of monitoring of signal decrease during the analytical sequence.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of different calibration approaches in a multi- and single-residue analysis of modern pesticides in plant matrices using liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS). In the first set of experiments the determination of eight pesticides representing different groups of polar/unstable pesticides (carbamates, benzimidazoles, azoles, benzoylphenylurea) in apple samples was performed. The trueness and precision of data obtained by using: (i) external solvent standard calibration, (ii) external matrix-matched standard calibration and (iii) echo-peak internal standard calibration was compared. The last mentioned method is a novel technique providing the possibility to inject internal standard of the same identity as a target analyte, so that its retention time is close to the analyte from the sample. According to expectation, when using external standard solvent calibration the results were under- or overestimated due to suppression or enhancement of analyte's signal by matrix components. On the other hand with the use of matrix-matched calibration accurate data were obtained. With echo-peak technique accurate results comparable to those obtained by matrix calibration were obtained for six out of eight pesticides. In the second set of experiment we used the echo-peak technique to overcome the problem with the response instability in the analysis of chlormequat in pear concentrate samples. As an internal standard method the echo-peak technique provided the possibility of monitoring of signal decrease during the analytical sequence and to compensate this decrease by relating sample peak area relatively to this internal standard.
TL;DR: Several important groups of fungicides and insecticides are specific inhibitors of chitin synthesis in a Phycomyces enzyme system and in insect organ cultures, and the recently discovered benzoylphenylurea insect pesticides are apparently not direct-acting chit in synthetase inhibitors.
Abstract: Several important groups of fungicides and insecticides are specific inhibitors of chitin synthesis in a Phycomyces enzyme system and in insect organ cultures. The recently discovered benzoylphenylurea insecticides, which prevent chitin synthesis in insect tissues, are apparently not direct-acting chitin synthetase inhibitors. These insecticides may prevent insect chitin synthesis by interfering with the proteolytic activation of the chitin synthetase zymogen.
TL;DR: It is proposed that the para-substituents at anilide of benzoylphenylureas should be the functional groups, and bipartite model BPU analogues are discussed in an attempt to provide new insight for future development of BPUs.
Abstract: Benzoylurea chitin synthesis inhibitors are widely used in integrated pest management (IPM) and insecticide resistance management (IRM) programs due to their low toxicity to mammals and predatory insects. In the past decades, a large number of benzoylurea derivatives have been synthesized, and 15 benzoylurea chitin synthesis inhibitors have been commercialized. This review focuses on the history of commercial benzolyphenylureas (BPUs), synthetic methods, structure–activity relationships (SAR), action mechanism research, environmental behaviors, and ecotoxicology. Furthermore, their disadvantages of high risk to aquatic invertebrates and crustaceans are pointed out. Finally, we propose that the para-substituents at anilide of benzoylphenylureas should be the functional groups, and bipartite model BPU analogues are discussed in an attempt to provide new insight for future development of BPUs.
TL;DR: This study showed quantitatively and qualitatively evidences of novaluron effects on Ae.
Abstract: Population control of the dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is difficult due to many reasons, one being the development of resistance to neurotoxic insecticides employed. The biosynthesis of chitin, a major constituent of insect cuticle, is a novel target for population control. Novaluron is a benzoylphenylurea (BPU) that acts as a chitin synthesis inhibitor, already used against mosquitoes. However, information regarding BPU effects on immature mosquito stages and physiological parameters related with mosquito larval development are scarce. A set of physiological parameters were recorded in control developing larvae and novaluron was administered continuously to Ae. aegypti larvae, since early third instar. Larval instar period duration was recorded from third instar until pupation. Chitin content was measured during third and fourth instars. Fourth instars were processed histochemically at the mesothorax region, stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) for assessment of internal tissues, and labeled with WGA-FITC to reveal chitinized structures. In control larvae: i) there is a chitin content increase during both third and fourth instars where late third instars contain more chitin than early fourth instars; ii) thoracic organs and a continuous cuticle, closely associated with the underlying epidermis were observed; iii) chitin was continuously present throughout integument cuticle. Novaluron treatment inhibited adult emergence, induced immature mortality, altered adult sex ratio and caused delay in larval development. Moreover, novaluron: i) significantly affected chitin content during larval development; ii) induced a discontinuous and altered cuticle in some regions while epidermis was often thinner or missing; iii) rendered chitin cuticle presence discontinuous and less evident. In both control and novaluron larvae, chitin was present in the peritrophic matrix. This study showed quantitatively and qualitatively evidences of novaluron effects on Ae. aegypti larval development. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing histological alterations produced by a BPU in immature vector mosquitoes.