About: Beta sheet is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 1785 publications have been published within this topic receiving 116727 citations. The topic is also known as: β-sheet & β-pleated sheet.
Papers published on a yearly basis
17 Jul 1991
TL;DR: In this article, the van der Waals Radii cut-off criterion is used to define the strong and weak hydrogen-bond configurations, as well as the relationship between two-center and three-center hydrogen bonds.
Abstract: IA Basic Concepts.- 1 The Importance of Hydrogen Bonds.- 1.1 Historical Perspective.- 1.2 The Importance of Hydrogen Bonds in Biological Structure and Function.- 1.3 The Role of the Water Molecules.- 1.4 Significance of Small Molecule Crystal Structural Studies.- 1.5 The Structural Approach.- 2 Definitions and Concepts.- 2.1 Definition of the Hydrogen Bond - Strong and Weak Bonds.- 2.2 Hydrogen-Bond Configurations: Two- and Three-Center Hydrogen Bonds Bifurcated and Tandem Bonds.- 2.3 Hydrogen Bonds Are Very Different from Covalent Bonds.- 2.4 The van der Waals Radii Cut-Off Criterion Is Not Useful.- 2.5 The Concept of the Hydrogen-Bond Structure.- 2.6 The Importance of ? and ? Cooperativity.- 2.7 Homo-, Anti- and Heterodromic Patterns.- 2.8 Hydrogen Bond Flip-Flop Disorder: Conformational and Configurational.- 2.9 Proton-Deficient Hydrogen Bonds.- 2.10 The Excluded Region.- 2.11 The Hydrophobic Effect.- 3 Experimental Studies of Hydrogen Bonding.- 3.1 Infrared Spectroscopy and Gas Electron Diffraction.- 3.2 X-Ray and Neutron Crystal Structure Analysis.- 3.3 Treatment of Hydrogen Atoms in Neutron Diffraction Studies.- 3.4 Charge Density and Hydrogen-Bond Energies.- 3.5 Neutron Powder Diffraction.- 3.6 Solid State NMR Spectroscopy.- 4 Theoretical Calculations of Hydrogen-Bond Geometries.- 4.1 Calculating Hydrogen-Bond Geometries.- 4.2 Ab-Initio Molecular Orbital Methods.- 4.3 Application to Hydrogen-Bonded Complexes.- 4.4 Semi-Empirical Molecular Orbital Methods.- 4.5 Empirical Force Field or Molecular Mechanics Methods.- 5 Effect of Hydrogen Bonding on Molecular Structure.- IB Hydrogen-Bond Geometry.- 6 The Importance of Small Molecule Structural Studies.- 6.1 Problems Associated with the Hydrogen-Bond Geometry.- 6.2 The Hydrogen Bond Can Be Described Statistically.- 6.3 The Problems of Measuring Hydrogen-Bond Lengths and Angles in Small Molecule Crystal Structures.- 7 Metrical Aspects of Two-Center Hydrogen Bonds.- 7.1 The Metrical Properties of O-H *** O Hydrogen Bonds.- 7.1.1 Very Strong and Strong OH *** O Hydrogen Bonds Occur with Oxyanions, Acid Salts, Acid Hydrates, and Carboxylic Acids.- 7.1.2 OH *** O Hydrogen Bonds in the Ices and High Hydrates.- 7.1.3 Carbohydrates Provide the Best Data for OH ... O Hydrogen Bonds: Evidence for the Cooperative Effect.- 7.2 N-H *** O Hydrogen Bonds.- 7.3 N-H *** N Hydrogen Bonds.- 7.4 O-H *** N Hydrogen Bonds.- 7.5 Sequences in Lengths of Two-Center Hydrogen Bonds.- 7.6 H/D Isotope Effect.- 8 Metrical Aspects of Three- and Four-Center Hydrogen Bonds.- 8.1 Three-Center Hydrogen Bonds.- 8.2 Four-Center Hydrogen Bonds.- 9 Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonds.- 10 Weak Hydrogen-Bonding Interactions Formed by C-H Groups as Donors and Aromatic Rings as Acceptors.- 11 Halides and Halogen Atoms as Hydrogen-Bond Acceptors.- 12 Hydrogen-Bond Acceptor Geometries.- II Hydrogen Bonding in Small Biological Molecules.- 13 Hydrogen Bonding in Carbohydrates.- 13.1 Sugar Alcohols (Alditols) as Model Cooperative Hydrogen-Bonded Structures.- 13.2 Influence of Hydrogen Bonding on Configuration and Conformation in Cyclic Monosaccharides.- 13.3 Rules to Describe Hydrogen-Bonding Patterns in Monosaccharides.- 13.4 The Water Molecules Link Hydrogen-Bond Chains into Nets in the Hydrated Monosaccharide Crystal Structures.- 13.5 The Disaccharide Crystal Structures Provide an Important Source of Data About Hydrogen-Bonding Patterns in Polysaccharides.- 13.6 Hydrogen Bonding in the Tri- and Tetrasaccharides Is More Complex and Less Well Defined.- 13.7 The Hydrogen Bonding in Polysaccharide Fiber Structures Is Poorly Defined.- 14 Hydrogen Bonding in Amino Acids and Peptides: Predominance of Zwitterions.- 15 Purines and Pyrimidines.- 15.1 Bases Are Planar and Each Contains Several Different Hydrogen-Bonding Donor and Acceptor Groups.- 15.2 Many Tautomeric Forms Are Feasible But Not Observed.- 15.3 ?-Bond Cooperativity Enhances Hydrogen-Bonding Forces.- 15.4 General, Non-Base-Pairing Hydrogen Bonds.- 16 Base Pairing in the Purine and Pyrimidine Crystal Structures.- 16.1 Base-Pair Configurations with Purine and Pyrimidine Homo-Association.- 16.2 Base-Pair Configurations with Purine-Pyrimidine Hetero-Association: the Watson-Crick Base-Pairs.- 16.3 Base Pairs Can Combine to Form Triplets and Quadruplets.- 17 Hydrogen Bonding in the Crystal Structures of the Nucleosides and Nucleotides.- 17.1 Conformational and Hydrogen-Bonding Characteristics of the Nucleosides and Nucleotides.- 17.2 A Selection of Cyclic Hydrogen-Bonding Patterns Formed in Nucleoside and Nucleotide Crystal Structures.- 17.3 General Hydrogen-Bonding Patterns in Nucleoside and Nucleotide Crystal Structures.- III Hydrogen Bonding in Biological Macromolecules.- 18 O-H *** O Hydrogen Bonding in Crystal Structures of Cyclic and Linear Oligoamyloses: Cyclodextrins, Maltotriose, and Maltohexaose.- 18.1 The Cyclodextrins and Their Inclusion Complexes.- 18.2 Crystal Packing Patterns of Cyclodextrins Are Determined by Hydrogen Bonding.- 18.3 Cyclodextrins as Model Compounds to Study Hydrogen-Bonding Networks.- 18.4 Cooperative, Homodromic, and Antidromic Hydrogen-Bonding Patterns in the ?-Cyclodextrin Hydrates.- 18.5 Homodromic and Antidromic O-H *** O Hydrogen-Bonding Systems Analyzed Theoretically.- 18.6 Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonds in the ?-Cyclodextrin Molecule are Variable - the Induced-Fit Hypothesis.- 18.7 Flip-Flop Hydrogen Bonds in ?-Cyclodextrin * 11 H2O.- 18.8 From Flip-Flop Disorder to Ordered Homodromic Arrangements at Low lbmperature: The Importance of the Cooperative Effect.- 18.9 Maltohexaose Polyiodide and Maltotriose - Double and Single Left-Handed Helices With and Without Intramolecular O(2) *** O(3?) Hydrogen Bonds.- 19 Hydrogen Bonding in Proteins.- 19.1 Geometry of Secondary-Structure Elements: Helix, Pleated Sheet, and Turn.- 19.2 Hydrogen-Bond Analysis in Protein Crystal Structures.- 19.3 Hydrogen-Bonding Patterns in the Secondary Structure Elements.- 19.4 Hydrogen-Bonding Patterns Involving Side-Chains.- 19.5 Internal Water Molecules as Integral Part of Protein Structures.- 19.6 Metrical Analysis of Hydrogen Bonds in Proteins.- 19.7 Nonsecondary-Structure Hydrogen-Bond Geometry Between Main-Chains, Side-Chains and Water Molecules.- 19.8 Three-Center (Bifurcated) Bonds in Proteins.- 19.9 Neutron Diffraction Studies on Proteins Give Insight into Local Hydrogen-Bonding Flexibility.- 19.10 Site-Directed Mutagenesis Gives New Insight into Protein Thermal Stability and Strength of Hydrogen Bonds.- 20 The Role of Hydrogen Bonding in the Structure and Function of the Nucleic Acids.- 20.1 Hydrogen Bonding in Nucleic Acids is Essential for Life.- 20.2 The Structure of DNA and RNA Double Helices is Determined by Watson-Crick Base-Pair Geometry.- 20.3 Systematic and Accidental Base-Pair Mismatches: "Wobbling" and Mutations.- 20.4 Noncomplementary Base Pairs Have a Structural Role in tRNA.- 20.5 Homopolynucleotide Complexes Are Stabilized by a Variety of Base-Base Hydrogen Bonds - Three-Center (Bifurcated) Hydrogen Bonds in A-Tracts.- 20.6 Specific Protein-Nucleic Acid Recognition Involves Hydrogen Bonding.- IV Hydrogen Bonding by the Water Molecule.- 21 Hydrogen-Bonding Patterns in Water, Ices, the Hydrate Inclusion Compounds, and the Hydrate Layer Structures.- 21.1 Liquid Water and the Ices.- 21.2 The Hydrate Inclusion Compounds.- 21.3 Hydrate Layer Structures.- 22 Hydrates of Small Biological Molecules: Carbohydrates, Amino Acids, Peptides, Purines, Pyrimidines, Nucleosides and Nucleotides.- 23 Hydration of Proteins.- 23.1 Characterization of "Bound Water" at Protein Surfaces - the First Hydration Shell.- 23.2 Sites of Hydration in Proteins.- 23.3 Metrics of Water Hydrogen Bonding to Proteins.- 23.4 Ordered Water Molecules at Protein Surfaces - Clusters and Pentagons.- 24 Hydration of Nucleic Acids.- 24.1 Two Water Layers Around the DNA Double Helix.- 24.2 Crystallographically Determined Hydration Sites in A-, B-, Z-DNA. A Statistical Analysis.- 24.3 Hydration Motifs in Double Helical Nucleic Acids.- 24.3.1 Sequence-Independent Motifs.- 24.3.2 Sequence-Dependent Motifs.- 24.4 DNA Hydration and Structural Transitions Are Correlated: Some Hypotheses.- 25 The Role of Three-Center Hydrogen Bonds in the Dynamics of Hydration and of Structure Transition.- References.- Refcodes.
TL;DR: The helix, s Applequist, 1963) in which the Zimm-Bragg parameters u and s are defined respectively as the cooperativity factor for helix initiation, and the equi- librium constant for converting a coil residue to a helical helix.
Abstract: The helix, s Applequist, 1963) in which the Zimm-Bragg parameters u and s are defined respectively as the cooperativity factor for helix initiation, and the equi- librium constant for converting a coil residue to a helical ~~~~
TL;DR: The atomic models of the complex between rabbit skeletal muscle actin and bovine pancreatic deoxyribonuclease I both in the ATP and ADP forms have been determined byo X-ray analysis at an effective resolution of 2.8 Å and 3 Å.
Abstract: The atomic models of the complex between rabbit skeletal muscle actin and bovine pancreatic deoxyribonuclease I both in the ATP and ADP forms have been determined by X-ray analysis at an effective resolution of 2.8 A and 3A, respectively. The two structures are very similar. The actin molecule consists of two domains which can be further subdivided into two subdomains. ADP or ATP is located in the cleft between the domains with a calcium ion bound to the beta- or beta- and gamma-phosphates, respectively. The motif of a five-stranded beta sheet consisting of a beta meander and a right handed beta alpha beta unit appears in each domain suggesting that gene duplication might have occurred. These sheets have the same topology as that found in hexokinase.
TL;DR: The crystal structure of the catalytic subunit of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase complexed with a 20-amino acid substrate analog inhibitor has been solved and partially refined at 2.7 A resolution to an R factor of 0.212.
Abstract: The crystal structure of the catalytic subunit of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase complexed with a 20-amino acid substrate analog inhibitor has been solved and partially refined at 2.7 A resolution to an R factor of 0.212. The magnesium adenosine triphosphate (MgATP) binding site was located by difference Fourier synthesis. The enzyme structure is bilobal with a deep cleft between the lobes. The cleft is filled by MgATP and a portion of the inhibitor peptide. The smaller lobe, consisting mostly of amino-terminal sequence, is associated with nucleotide binding, and its largely antiparallel beta sheet architecture constitutes an unusual nucleotide binding motif. The larger lobe is dominated by helical structure with a single beta sheet at the domain interface. This lobe is primarily involved in peptide binding and catalysis. Residues 40 through 280 constitute a conserved catalytic core that is shared by more than 100 protein kinases. Most of the invariant amino acids in this conserved catalytic core are clustered at the sites of nucleotide binding and catalysis.
TL;DR: The three-dimensional structure of the proteasome from the archaebacterium Thermoplasma acidophilum has been elucidated by x-ray crystallographic analysis by means of isomorphous replacement and cyclic averaging.
Abstract: The three-dimensional structure of the proteasome from the archaebacterium Thermoplasma acidophilum has been elucidated by x-ray crystallographic analysis by means of isomorphous replacement and cyclic averaging. The atomic model was built and refined to a crystallographic R factor of 22.1 percent. The 673-kilodalton protease complex consists of 14 copies of two different subunits, alpha and beta, forming a barrel-shaped structure of four stacked rings. The two inner rings consist of seven beta subunits each, and the two outer rings consist of seven alpha subunits each. A narrow channel controls access to the three inner compartments. The alpha 7 beta 7 beta 7 alpha 7 subunit assembly has 72-point group symmetry. The structures of the alpha and beta subunits are similar, consisting of a core of two antiparallel beta sheets that is flanked by alpha helices on both sides. The binding of a peptide aldehyde inhibitor marks the active site in the central cavity at the amino termini of the beta subunits and suggests a novel proteolytic mechanism.