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Biasing

About: Biasing is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 29422 publications have been published within this topic receiving 301035 citations.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a two-layer organic photovoltaic cell was fabricated from copper phthalocyanine and a perylene tetracarboxylic derivative, achieving a power conversion efficiency of about 1% under simulated AM2 illumination.
Abstract: A thin‐film, two‐layer organic photovoltaiccell has been fabricated from copper phthalocyanine and a perylene tetracarboxylic derivative. A power conversion efficiency of about 1% has been achieved under simulated AM2 illumination. A novel feature of the device is that the charge‐generation efficiency is relatively independent of the bias voltage, resulting in cells with fill factor values as high as 0.65. The interface between the two organic materials, rather than the electrode/organic contacts, is crucial in determining the photovoltaicproperties of the cell.

4,717 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The intrinsic high-field transport properties of metallic single-wall carbon nanotubes are measured using low-resistance electrical contacts and it is shown that the current-voltage characteristics can be explained by considering optical or zone-boundary phonon emission as the dominant scattering mechanism at high field.
Abstract: Using low-resistance electrical contacts, we have measured the intrinsic high-field transport properties of metallic single-wall carbon nanotubes. Individual nanotubes appear to be able to carry currents with a density exceeding 10(9) A/cm(2). As the bias voltage is increased, the conductance drops dramatically due to scattering of electrons. We show that the current-voltage characteristics can be explained by considering optical or zone-boundary phonon emission as the dominant scattering mechanism at high field.

1,415 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a variation of the work function for single and bilayer graphene devices measured by scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM) is reported, by using the electric field effect, which can be adjusted as the gate voltage tunes the Fermi level across the charge neutrality point.
Abstract: We report variation of the work function for single and bilayer graphene devices measured by scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM). By use of the electric field effect, the work function of graphene can be adjusted as the gate voltage tunes the Fermi level across the charge neutrality point. Upon biasing the device, the surface potential map obtained by SKPM provides a reliable way to measure the contact resistance of individual electrodes contacting graphene.

1,205 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the rate-dependent hysteresis seen in current-voltage scans of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells is related to a slow field-induced process that tends to cancel the electric field in the device at each applied bias voltage.
Abstract: In this work we show that the rate-dependent hysteresis seen in current–voltage scans of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells is related to a slow field-induced process that tends to cancel the electric field in the device at each applied bias voltage. It is attributed to the build-up of space charge close to the contacts, independent of illumination and most likely due to ionic displacement, which is enhanced when the device undergoes aging. This process can also lead to a reduction of the open-circuit voltage or the steady-state photocurrent and does not directly correlate with the development of the hysteresis if it is measured at a fixed voltage sweep rate.

1,150 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Variation of the work function for single and bilayer graphene devices measured by scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM) is reported, by use of the electric field effect.
Abstract: We report variation of the work function for single and bi-layer graphene devices measured by scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM). Using the electric field effect, the work function of graphene can be adjusted as the gate voltage tunes the Fermi level across the charge neutrality point. Upon biasing the device, the surface potential map obtained by SKPM provides a reliable way to measure the contact resistance of individual electrodes contacting graphene.

1,130 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
2023256
2022488
2021480
2020923
2019946
2018977