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Bifunctional

About: Bifunctional is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 13925 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 377088 citation(s).
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Journal ArticleDOI
Ram Subbaraman1, Dusan Tripkovic1, Dusan Strmcnik1, Kee-Chul Chang1  +4 moreInstitutions (1)
02 Dec 2011-Science
TL;DR: It is found that a controlled arrangement of nanometer-scale Ni(OH)2 clusters on platinum electrode surfaces manifests a factor of 8 activity increase in catalyzing the hydrogen evolution reaction relative to state-of-the-art metal and metal-oxide catalysts.
Abstract: Improving the sluggish kinetics for the electrochemical reduction of water to molecular hydrogen in alkaline environments is one key to reducing the high overpotentials and associated energy losses in water-alkali and chlor-alkali electrolyzers. We found that a controlled arrangement of nanometer-scale Ni(OH)(2) clusters on platinum electrode surfaces manifests a factor of 8 activity increase in catalyzing the hydrogen evolution reaction relative to state-of-the-art metal and metal-oxide catalysts. In a bifunctional effect, the edges of the Ni(OH)(2) clusters promoted the dissociation of water and the production of hydrogen intermediates that then adsorbed on the nearby Pt surfaces and recombined into molecular hydrogen. The generation of these hydrogen intermediates could be further enhanced via Li(+)-induced destabilization of the HO-H bond, resulting in a factor of 10 total increase in activity.

1,606 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
03 Jun 2005-Science
TL;DR: Liquid alkanes with the number of carbon atoms ranging from C7 to C15 were selectively produced from biomass-derived carbohydrates by acid-catalyzed dehydration, which was followed by aldol condensation over solid base catalysts to form large organic compounds.
Abstract: Liquid alkanes with the number of carbon atoms ranging from C7 to C15 were selectively produced from biomass-derived carbohydrates by acid-catalyzed dehydration, which was followed by aldol condensation over solid base catalysts to form large organic compounds. These molecules were then converted into alkanes by dehydration/hydrogenation over bifunctional catalysts that contained acid and metal sites in a four-phase reactor, in which the aqueous organic reactant becomes more hydrophobic and a hexadecane alkane stream removes hydrophobic species from the catalyst before they go on further to form coke. These liquid alkanes are of the appropriate molecular weight to be used as transportation fuel components, and they contain 90% of the energy of the carbohydrate and H2 feeds.

1,449 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Yelena Gorlin1, Thomas F. Jaramillo1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: Physical and chemical characterization of the nanostructured Mn oxide bifunctional catalyst reveals an oxidation state of Mn(III), akin to one of the most commonly observed Mn oxidation states found in the OEC.
Abstract: There is a growing interest in oxygen electrochemistry as conversions between O(2) and H(2)O play an important role in a variety of renewable energy technologies. The goal of this work is to develop active bifunctional catalyst materials for water oxidation and oxygen reduction. Drawing inspiration from a cubane-like CaMn(4)O(x), the biological catalyst found in the oxygen evolving center (OEC) in photosystem II, nanostructured manganese oxide surfaces were investigated for these reactions. Thin films of nanostructured manganese oxide were found to be active for both oxygen reduction and water oxidation, with similar overall oxygen electrode activity to the best known precious metal nanoparticle catalysts: platinum, ruthenium, and iridium. Physical and chemical characterization of the nanostructured Mn oxide bifunctional catalyst reveals an oxidation state of Mn(III), akin to one of the most commonly observed Mn oxidation states found in the OEC.

1,276 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Liang Liang Feng1, Guangtao Yu1, Yuanyuan Wu1, Guo Dong Li1  +5 moreInstitutions (2)
TL;DR: Experimental results and theoretical calculations indicate that Ni3S2/NF's excellent catalytic activity is mainly due to the synergistic catalytic effects produced in it by its nanosheet arrays and exposed {2̅10} high-index facets.
Abstract: Elaborate design of highly active and stable catalysts from Earth-abundant elements has great potential to produce materials that can replace the noble-metal-based catalysts commonly used in a range of useful (electro)chemical processes. Here we report, for the first time, a synthetic method that leads to in situ growth of {210} high-index faceted Ni3S2 nanosheet arrays on nickel foam (NF). We show that the resulting material, denoted Ni3S2/NF, can serve as a highly active, binder-free, bifunctional electrocatalyst for both the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Ni3S2/NF is found to give ∼100% Faradaic yield toward both HER and OER and to show remarkable catalytic stability (for >200 h). Experimental results and theoretical calculations indicate that Ni3S2/NF’s excellent catalytic activity is mainly due to the synergistic catalytic effects produced in it by its nanosheet arrays and exposed {210} high-index facets.

1,195 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202280
20211,248
20201,144
20191,080
2018905
2017692