Topic

# Binding energy

About: Binding energy is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 21916 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 585469 citation(s).

##### Papers
More

Journal Article
Abstract: Chemical state X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis of first row transition metals and their oxides and hydroxides is challenging due to the complexity of their 2p spectra resulting from peak asymmetries, complex multiplet splitting, shake-up and plasmon loss structure, and uncertain, overlapping binding energies. Our previous paper [M.C. Biesinger et al., Appl. Surf. Sci. 257 (2010) 887–898.] in which we examined Sc, Ti, V, Cu and Zn species, has shown that all the values of the spectral fitting parameters for each specific species, i.e. binding energy (eV), full wide at half maximum (FWHM) value (eV) for each pass energy, spin–orbit splitting values and asymmetric peak shape fitting parameters, are not all normally provided in the literature and data bases, and are necessary for reproducible, quantitative chemical state analysis. A more consistent, practical and effective approach to curve fitting was developed based on a combination of (1) standard spectra from quality reference samples, (2) a survey of appropriate literature databases and/or a compilation of literature references and (3) specific literature references where fitting procedures are available. This paper extends this approach to the chemical states of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Ni metals, and various oxides and hydroxides where intense, complex multiplet splitting in many of the chemical states of these elements poses unique difficulties for chemical state analysis. The curve fitting procedures proposed use the same criteria as proposed previously but with the additional complexity of fitting of multiplet split spectra which has been done based on spectra of numerous reference materials and theoretical XPS modeling of these transition metal species. Binding energies, FWHM values, asymmetric peak shape fitting parameters, multiplet peak separation and peak area percentages are presented. The procedures developed can be utilized to remove uncertainties in the analysis of surface states in nano-particles, corrosion, catalysis and surface-engineered materials.

Topics: Chemical state (54%), Curve fitting (52%),  ...read more

5,616 Citations

Journal Article
15 May 1976-Physical Review B
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to advocate the usefulness of the spin-density-functional (SDF) formalism. The generalization of the Hohenberg-Kohn-Sham scheme to and SDF formalism is presented in its thermodynamic version. The ground-state formalism is extended to more general Hamiltonians and to the lowest excited state of each symmetry. A relation between the exchange-correlation functional and the pair correlation function is derived. It is used for the interpretation of approximate versions of the theory, in particular the local-spin-density (LSD) approximation, which is formally valid only in the limit of slow and weak spatial variation in the density. It is shown, however, to give good account for the exchange-correlation energy also in rather inhomogeneous situations, because only the spherical average of the exchange-correlation hole influences this energy, and because it fulfills the sum rule stating that this hole should contain only one charge unit. A further advantage of the LSD approximation is that it can be systematically improved. Calculations on the homogeneous spin-polarized electron liquid are reported on. These calculations provide data in the form of interpolation formulas for the exchange-correlation energy and potentials, to be used in the LSD approximation. The ground-state properties are obtained from the Galitskii-Migdal formula, which relates the total energy to the one-electron spectrum, obtained with a dynamical self-energy. The self-energy is calculated in an electron-plasmon model where the electron is assumed to couple to one single mode. The potential for excited states is obtained by identifying the quasiparticle peak in the spectrum. Correlation is found to significantly weaken the spin dependence of the potentials, compared with the result in the Hartree-Fock approximation. Charge and spin response functions are calculated in the long-wavelength limit. Correlation is found to be very important for properties which involve a change in the spinpolarization. For atoms, molecules, and solids the usefulness of the SDF formalism is discussed. In order to explore the range of applicability, a few applications of the LSD approximation are made on systems for which accurate solutions exist. The calculated ionization potentials, affinities, and excitation energies for atoms propose that the valence electrons are fairly well described, a typical error in the ionization energy being 1/2 eV. The exchange-correlation holes of two-electron ions are discussed. An application to the hydrogen molecule, using a minimum basis set, shows that the LSD approximation gives good results for the energy curve for all separations studied, in contrast to the spin-independent local approximation. In particular, the error in the binding energy is only 0.1 eV, and bond breaking is properly described. For solids, the SDF formalism provides a framework for band models of magnetism. An estimate of the splitting between spin-up and spin-down energy bands of a ferromagnetic transition metal shows that the LSD approximation gives a correction of the correct sign and order of magnitude to published $X\ensuremath{\alpha}$ results. To stimulate further use of the SDF formalism in the LSD approximation, the paper is self-contained and describes the necessary formulas and input data for the potentials.

Topics: , Electron liquid (54%), Excited state (53%) ...read more

2,656 Citations

Journal Article
Peter Sigmund1Institutions (1)
10 Aug 1969-Physical Review
Abstract: Sputtering of a target by energetic ions or recoil atoms is assumed to result from cascades of atomic collisions. The sputtering yield is calculated under the assumption of random slowing down in an infinite medium. An integrodifferential equation for the yield is developed from the general Boltzmann transport equation. Input quantities are the cross sections for ion-target and target-target collisions, and atomic binding energies. Solutions of the integral equation are given that are asymptotically exact in the limit of high ion energy as compared to atomic binding energies. Two main stages of the collision cascade have to be distinguished: first, the slowing down of the primary ion and all recoiling atoms that have comparable energies---these particles determine the spatial extent of the cascade; second, the creation and slowing down of low-energy recoils that constitute the major part of all atoms set in motion. The separation between the two stages is essentially complete in the limit of high ion energy, as far as the calculation of the sputtering yield is concerned. High-energy collisions are characterized by Thomas-Fermi-type cross sections, while a Born-Mayer-type cross section is applied in the low-energy region. Electronic stopping is included when necessary. The separation of the cascade into two distinct stages has the consequence that two characteristic depths are important for the qualitative understanding of the sputtering process. First, the scattering events that eventually lead to sputtering take place within a certain layer near the surface, the thickness of which depends on ion mass and energy and on ion-target geometry. In the elastic collision region, this thickness is a sizable fraction of the ion range. Second, the majority of sputtered particles originate from a very thin surface layer (\ensuremath{\sim}5 \AA{}), because small energies dominate. The general sputtering-yield formula is applied to specific situations that are of interest for comparison with experiment. These include backsputtering of thick targets by ion beams at perpendicular and oblique incidence and ion energies above \ensuremath{\sim}100 eV, transmission sputtering of thin foils, sputtering by recoil atoms from $\ensuremath{\alpha}$-active atoms distributed homogeneously or inhomogeneously in a thick target, sputtering of fissionable specimens by fission fragments, and sputtering of specimens that are irradiated in the core of a reactor or bombarded with a neutron beam. There is good agreement with experimental results on polycrystalline targets within the estimated accuracy of the data and the input parameters entering the theory. There is no need for adjustable parameters in the usual sense, but specific experimental setups are discussed that allow independent checks or accurate determination of some input quantities.

2,492 Citations

Journal Article
Abstract: A new titration calorimeter is described and results are presented for the binding of cytidine 2'-monophosphate (2'CMP) to the active site of ribonuclease A. The instrument characteristics include very high sensitivity, rapid calorimetric response, and fast thermal equilibration. Convenient software is available for instrument operation, data collection, data reduction, and deconvolution to obtain least-squares estimates of binding parameters n, delta H degree, delta S degree, and the binding constant K. Sample through-put for the instrument is high, and under favorable conditions binding constants as large as 10(8) M-1 can be measured. The bovine ribonuclease A (RNase)/2'CMP system was studied over a 50-fold range of RNase concentration and at two different temperatures. The binding constants were in the 10(5) to 10(6) M-1 range, depending on conditions, and heats of binding ca. -15,000 cal/mol. Repeat determinations suggested errors of only a few percent in n, delta H degree, and K values over the most favorable concentration range.

Topics: Binding constant (54%), , Binding energy (51%)

2,476 Citations

Open accessBook
01 Nov 1992-
Abstract: Description of the spectrometer x-ray source monochromator electron lens hemispherical analyser multichannel detector sample analysis chamber charge compensation performance on conducting samples performance on insulating samples performance on testing of the spectrometer experimental protocol sample mounting data acquisition correction of binding energy scale for sample charging curve fitting lineshapes shake-up structure valence bands impurities x-ray degradation organization of the database list of polymers and acronyms the database appendix 1 - primary C 1s shifts appendix 2 - secondary C 1s shifts appendix 3.1 - 0 1s binding energies in CHO polymers appendix 3.2 - 0 1s binding energies in other polymers appendix 4 - N 1s binding energies appendix 5 - F 1s binding energies appendix 6 - binding energies and spin-orbit constants for core-line doublets apendix 7 - binding energies of peaks appearing in the valence band region.

Topics: Binding energy (52%)

2,266 Citations

##### Performance
###### Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202217
2021498
2020531
2019543
2018543
2017586

###### Top Attributes

Show by:

Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

A. John Peter

48 papers, 491 citations

P. B. Armentrout

40 papers, 2.9K citations

C.A. Duque

34 papers, 759 citations

Ismail Sokmen

33 papers, 587 citations

Chang Q. Sun

32 papers, 837 citations

##### Network Information
###### Related Topics (5)
Excited state

102.2K papers, 2.2M citations

95% related
Ground state

70K papers, 1.5M citations

94% related
Wave function

27.7K papers, 688.4K citations

94% related
Valence (chemistry)

24.9K papers, 645.2K citations

94% related
Hyperfine structure

25.8K papers, 468.6K citations

93% related