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Biomass

About: Biomass is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 57224 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 1412300 citation(s).

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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/0038-0717(87)90052-6
Abstract: The effects of fumigation on organic C extractable by 0.5 M K2SO4 were examined in a contrasting range of soils. EC (the difference between organic C extracted by 0.5 M K2SO4 from fumigated and non-fumigated soil) was about 70% of FC (the flush of CO2-C caused by fumigation during a 10 day incubation), meaned for ten soils. There was a close relationship between microbial biomass C, measured by fumigation-incubation (from the relationship Biomass C = FC/0.45) and EC given by the equation: Biomass C = (2.64 ± 0.060) EC that accounted for 99.2% of the variance in the data. This relationship held over a wide range of soil pH (3.9–8.0). ATP and microbial biomass N concentrations were measured in four of the soils. The (ATP)(EC) ratios were very similar in the four soils, suggesting that both ATP and the organic C rendered decomposable by CHCl3 came from the soil microbial biomass. The C:N ratio of the biomass in a strongly acid (pH 4.2) soil was greater (9.4) than in the three less-acid soils (mean C:N ratio 5.1). We propose that the organic C rendered extractable to 0.5 m K2SO4 after a 24 h CHCl3-fumigation (EC) comes from the cells of the microbial biomass and can be used to estimate soil microbial biomass C in both neutral and acid soils.

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Topics: Soil pH (55%), Biomass (53%), Soil water (52%)

8,698 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/CR068360D
George W. Huber1, Sara Iborra1, Avelino Corma1Institutions (1)
27 Jun 2006-Chemical Reviews
Abstract: 1.0. Introduction 4044 2.0. Biomass Chemistry and Growth Rates 4047 2.1. Lignocellulose and Starch-Based Plants 4047 2.2. Triglyceride-Producing Plants 4049 2.3. Algae 4050 2.4. Terpenes and Rubber-Producing Plants 4052 3.0. Biomass Gasification 4052 3.1. Gasification Chemistry 4052 3.2. Gasification Reactors 4054 3.3. Supercritical Gasification 4054 3.4. Solar Gasification 4055 3.5. Gas Conditioning 4055 4.0. Syn-Gas Utilization 4056 4.1. Hydrogen Production by Water−Gas Shift Reaction 4056

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Topics: Biomass (56%), Hydrogen production (53%)

6,454 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.BIORTECH.2004.06.025
Abstract: Cellulosic plant material represents an as-of-yet untapped source of fermentable sugars for significant industrial use. Many physio-chemical structural and compositional factors hinder the enzymatic digestibility of cellulose present in lignocellulosic biomass. The goal of any pretreatment technology is to alter or remove structural and compositional impediments to hydrolysis in order to improve the rate of enzyme hydrolysis and increase yields of fermentable sugars from cellulose or hemicellulose. These methods cause physical and/or chemical changes in the plant biomass in order to achieve this result. Experimental investigation of physical changes and chemical reactions that occur during pretreatment is required for the development of effective and mechanistic models that can be used for the rational design of pretreatment processes. Furthermore, pretreatment processing conditions must be tailored to the specific chemical and structural composition of the various, and variable, sources of lignocellulosic biomass. This paper reviews process parameters and their fundamental modes of action for promising pretreatment methods.

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Topics: Lignocellulosic biomass (61%), Biomass (56%), Cellulosic ethanol (53%) ...read more

5,749 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0960-8524(01)00212-7
Ye Sun1, Jiayang Cheng1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Lignocellulosic biomass can be utilized to produce ethanol, a promising alternative energy source for the limited crude oil. There are mainly two processes involved in the conversion: hydrolysis of cellulose in the lignocellulosic biomass to produce reducing sugars, and fermentation of the sugars to ethanol. The cost of ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials is relatively high based on current technologies, and the main challenges are the low yield and high cost of the hydrolysis process. Considerable research efforts have been made to improve the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials. Pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials to remove lignin and hemicellulose can significantly enhance the hydrolysis of cellulose. Optimization of the cellulase enzymes and the enzyme loading can also improve the hydrolysis. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation effectively removes glucose, which is an inhibitor to cellulase activity, thus increasing the yield and rate of cellulose hydrolysis.

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Topics: Lignocellulosic biomass (66%), Cellulase (60%), Biomass (58%) ...read more

5,503 Citations


Open access
01 Jan 2008-
Abstract: NREL Laboratory Analytical Procedures for standard biomass analysis are available electronically at DISCLAIMER These Standard Biomass Analytical Methods (" Methods ") are provided by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (" NREL "), which is operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC (" ASE ") for the Department Of Energy. Access to and use of these Methods shall impose the following obligations on the user. The user is granted the right, without any fee or cost, to use, copy, modify, alter, enhance and distribute these Methods for any purpose whatsoever, except commercial sales, provided that this entire notice appears in all copies of the Methods. Further, the user agrees to credit NREL/ASE in any publications that result from the use of these Methods. The names NREL/ASE, however, may not be used in any advertising or publicity to endorse or promote any products or commercial entity unless specific written permission is obtained from NREL/ASE. The user also understands that NREL/ASE is not obligated to provide the user with any support, consulting, training or assistance of any kind with regard to the use of these Methods or to provide the user with any updates, revisions or new versions.

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Topics: Biomass (59%)

4,862 Citations


Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
2022188
20213,840
20204,055
20193,867
20184,028
20173,755

Top Attributes

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

André Faaij

60 papers, 5.8K citations

Arthur J. Ragauskas

54 papers, 4.3K citations

Ayhan Demirbas

46 papers, 8.8K citations

Wei Hsin Chen

39 papers, 2.2K citations

Suzana Yusup

35 papers, 807 citations

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