About: Bioreactor is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 9980 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 192690 citation(s). The topic is also known as: bioreactors.
Papers published on a yearly basis
01 Mar 2009-Biotechnology Advances
TL;DR: The present work is aimed at the reviewing of the oxygen transfer rate (OTR) in bioprocesses to provide a better knowledge about the selection, design, scale-up and development of bioreactors.
Abstract: In aerobic bioprocesses, oxygen is a key substrate; due to its low solubility in broths (aqueous solutions), a continuous supply is needed. The oxygen transfer rate (OTR) must be known, and if possible predicted to achieve an optimum design operation and scale-up of bioreactors. Many studies have been conducted to enhance the efficiency of oxygen transfer. The dissolved oxygen concentration in a suspension of aerobic microorganisms depends on the rate of oxygen transfer from the gas phase to the liquid, on the rate at which oxygen is transported into the cells (where it is consumed), and on the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) by the microorganism for growth, maintenance and production. The gas-liquid mass transfer in a bioprocess is strongly influenced by the hydrodynamic conditions in the bioreactors. These conditions are known to be a function of energy dissipation that depends on the operational conditions, the physicochemical properties of the culture, the geometrical parameters of the bioreactor and also on the presence of oxygen consuming cells. Stirred tank and bubble column (of various types) bioreactors are widely used in a large variety of bioprocesses (such as aerobic fermentation and biological wastewater treatments, among others). Stirred tanks bioreactors provide high values of mass and heat transfer rates and excellent mixing. In these systems, a high number of variables affect the mass transfer and mixing, but the most important among them are stirrer speed, type and number of stirrers and gas flow rate used. In bubble columns and airlifts, the low-shear environment compared to the stirred tanks has enabled successful cultivation of shear sensitive and filamentous cells. Oxygen transfer is often the rate-limiting step in the aerobic bioprocess due to the low solubility of oxygen in the medium. The correct measurement and/or prediction of the volumetric mass transfer coefficient, (k(L)a), is a crucial step in the design, operation and scale-up of bioreactors. The present work is aimed at the reviewing of the oxygen transfer rate (OTR) in bioprocesses to provide a better knowledge about the selection, design, scale-up and development of bioreactors. First, the most used measuring methods are revised; then the main empirical equations, including those using dimensionless numbers, are considered. The possible increasing on OTR due to the oxygen consumption by the cells is taken into account through the use of the biological enhancement factor. Theoretical predictions of both the volumetric mass transfer coefficient and the enhancement factor that have been recently proposed are described; finally, different criteria for bioreactor scale-up are considered in the light of the influence of OTR and OUR affecting the dissolved oxygen concentration in real bioprocess.
TL;DR: It can be shown that there does not exist any need for ‘phase separation’ when treating non- or slightly acidified wastewaters and it looks necessary to reconsider theories for mass transfer in immobilized anaerobic biomass.
Abstract: Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) wastewater (pre-)treatment systems represent a proven sustainable technology for a wide range of very different industrial effluents, including those containing toxic/inhibitory compounds. The process is also feasible for treatment of domestic wastewater with temperatures as low as 14-16 degrees C and likely even lower. Compared to conventional aerobic treatment systems the anaerobic treatment process merely offers advantages. This especially is true for the rate of start-up. The available insight in anaerobic sludge immobilization (i.e. granulation) and growth of granular anaerobic sludge in many respects suffices for practice. In anaerobic treatment the immobilization of balanced microbial communities is essential, because the concentration of intermediates then can be kept sufficiently low. So far ignored factors like the death and decay rate of organisms are of eminent importance for the quality of immobilized anaerobic sludge. Taking these factors into account, it can be shown that there does not exist any need for 'phase separation' when treating non- or slightly acidified wastewaters. Phase separation even is detrimental in case the acidogenic organisms are not removed from the effluent of the acidogenic reactor, because they deteriorate the settleability of granular sludge and also negatively affect the formation and growth of granular sludge. The growing insight in the role of factors like nutrients and trace elements, the effect of metabolic intermediates and end products opens excellent prospects for process control, e.g. for the anaerobic treatment of wastewaters containing mainly methanol. Anaerobic wastewater treatment can also profitably be applied in the thermophilic and psychrophilic temperature range. Moreover, thermophilic anaerobic sludge can be used under mesophilic conditions. The Expanded Granular Sludge Bed (EGSB) system particularly offers big practical potentials, e.g. for very low strength wastewaters (COD << 1 g/l) and at temperatures as low as 10 degrees C. In EGSB-systems virtually all the retained sludge is employed, while compared to UASB-systems also a substantially bigger fraction of the immobilized organisms (inside the granules) participates in the process, because an extraordinary high substrate affinity prevails in these systems. It looks necessary to reconsider theories for mass transfer in immobilized anaerobic biomass. Instead of phasing the digestion process, staging of the anaerobic reactors should be applied. In this way mixing up of the sludge can be significantly reduced and a plug flow is promoted. A staged process will provide a higher treatment efficiency and a higher process stability. This especially applies for thermophilic systems.
01 Apr 2005-Water Research
TL;DR: Analytical data indicate that many of the aromatic amines were removed from the wastewater, and although the limited amount of available toxicity data all show far-reaching detoxification during aerobic treatment, it is clear that not all aromatic amine can be completely mineralized.
Abstract: The most logical concept for the removal of azo dyes in biological wastewater treatment systems is based on anaerobic treatment, for the reductive cleavage of the dyes' azo linkages, in combination with aerobic treatment, for the degradation of the products from azo dye cleavage, aromatic amines. Since the 1990s, several research papers have been published on combined, sequential or integrated, anaerobic-aerobic bioreactor treatment of azo dye-containing wastewater. The extent of azo dye reduction in the anaerobic phase of those bioreactor systems was generally high, albeit the process often required long reaction times, a limitation that can easily be remedied by making use of the property of redox mediators to speed up the process. The consequent removal of aromatic amines under aerobic conditions was less unequivocal. Although analytical data indicate that many of the aromatic amines were removed from the wastewater, and although the limited amount of available toxicity data all show far-reaching detoxification during aerobic treatment, it is clear that not all aromatic amines can be completely mineralized.
TL;DR: Advances in integrated fermentation and in situ product removal processes have resulted in a dramatic reduction of process streams, reduced butanol toxicity to the fermenting microorganisms, improved substrate utilization, and overall improved bioreactor performance.
Abstract: Butanol is produced chemically using either the oxo process starting from propylene (with H2 and CO over a rhodium catalyst) or the aldol process starting from acetaldehyde. The key problems associated with the bioproduction of butanol are the cost of substrate and butanol toxicity/inhibition of the fermenting microorganisms, resulting in a low butanol titer in the fermentation broth. Recent interest in the production of biobutanol from biomass has led to the re-examination of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation, including strategies for reducing or eliminating butanol toxicity to the culture and for manipulating the culture to achieve better product specificity and yield. Advances in integrated fermentation and in situ product removal processes have resulted in a dramatic reduction of process streams, reduced butanol toxicity to the fermenting microorganisms, improved substrate utilization, and overall improved bioreactor performance.
01 Mar 2005-Process Biochemistry
TL;DR: Continuous two-phase systems appear as more highly efficient technologies for anaerobic digestion of FVW, their greatest advantage lies in the buffering of the organic loading rate taking place in the first stage, allowing a more constant feeding rate of the methanogenic second stage.
Abstract: This work reviews the potential of anaerobic digestion for material recovery and energy production from fruit and vegetable wastes (FVW). These wastes contain 8–18% total solids (TS), with a total volatile solids (VS) content of 86–92%. The organic fraction includes about 75% easy biodegradable matter (sugars and hemicellulose), 9% cellulose and 5% lignin. Anaerobic digestion of FVW was studied under different operating conditions using different types of bioreactors. It permits the conversion of 70–95% of organic matter to methane, with a volumetric organic loading rate (OLR) o f 1–6.8 g versatile solids (VS)/l day. A major limitation of anaerobic digestion of FVW is a rapid acidification of these wastes decreasing the pH in the reactor, and a larger volatile fatty acids production (VFA), which stress and inhibit the activity of methanogenic bacteria. Continuous two-phase systems appear as more highly efficient technologies for anaerobic digestion of FVW. Their greatest advantage lies in the buffering of the organic loading rate taking place in the first stage, allowing a more constant feeding rate of the methanogenic second stage. Using a two-stage system involving a thermophilic liquefaction reactor and a mesophilic anaerobic filter, over 95% volatile solids were converted to methane at a volumetric loading rate of 5.65 g VS/l d. The average methane production yield was about 420 l/kg added VS.
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