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Bioremediation

About: Bioremediation is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 10989 publications have been published within this topic receiving 287093 citations.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Biological mechanisms of toxic metal uptake, translocation and resistance as well as strategies for improving phytoremediation are also discussed.
Abstract: Toxic metal pollution of waters and soils is a major environmental problem, and most conventional remediation approaches do not provide acceptable solutions. The use of specially selected and engineered metal-accumulating plants for environmental clean-up is an emerging technology called phytoremediation. Three subsets of this technology are applicable to toxic metal remediation: (1) Phytoextraction--the use of metal-accumulating plants to remove toxic metals from soil; (2) Rhizofiltration--the use of plant roots to remove toxic metals from polluted waters; and (3) Phytostabilization--the use of plants to eliminate the bioavailability of toxic metals in soils. Biological mechanisms of toxic metal uptake, translocation and resistance as well as strategies for improving phytoremediation are also discussed.

2,183 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Biosurfactants are more effective, selective, environmentally friendly, and stable than many synthetic surfactants, and the most promising applications are cleaning of oil-contaminated tankers, oil spill management, transportation of heavy crude oil, enhanced oil recovery, recovery of crude oil from sludge, and bioremediation of sites contaminated with hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and other pollutants.
Abstract: Many microorganisms, especially bacteria, produce biosurfactants when grown on water-immiscible substrates. Biosurfactants are more effective, selective, environmentally friendly, and stable than many synthetic surfactants. Most common biosurfactants are glycolipids in which carbohydrates are attached to a long-chain aliphatic acid, while others, like lipopeptides, lipoproteins, and heteropolysaccharides, are more complex. Rapid and reliable methods for screening and selection of biosurfactant-producing microorganisms and evaluation of their activity have been developed. Genes involved in rhamnolipid synthesis (rhlAB) and regulation (rhlI and rhlR) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa are characterized, and expression of rhlAB in heterologous hosts is discussed. Genes for surfactin production (sfp, srfA, and comA) in Bacillus spp. are also characterized. Fermentative production of biosurfactants depends primarily on the microbial strain, source of carbon and nitrogen, pH, temperature, and concentration of oxygen and metal ions. Addition of water-immiscible substrates to media and nitrogen and iron limitations in the media result in an overproduction of some biosurfactants. Other important advances are the use of water-soluble substrates and agroindustrial wastes for production, development of continuous recovery processes, and production through biotransformation. Commercialization of biosurfactants in the cosmetic, food, health care, pulp- and paper-processing, coal, ceramic, and metal industries has been proposed. However, the most promising applications are cleaning of oil-contaminated tankers, oil spill management, transportation of heavy crude oil, enhanced oil recovery, recovery of crude oil from sludge, and bioremediation of sites contaminated with hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and other pollutants. Perspectives for future research and applications are also discussed.

2,092 citations

Book
01 Jan 1994
TL;DR: In this paper, growth-linked biodegradation is discussed and the effect of chemical structure on biodegradability is discussed. And the authors predict products of Biodegradation.
Abstract: Introduction. Growth-linked Biodegradation. Acclimation. Detoxication. Activation. Kinetics. Threshold. Sorption. Nonaqueous-Phase Liquids and Compounds with Low Water Solubility. Bioavailability: Aging, Sequestering and Complexing. Effect of Chemical Structure on Biodegradation. Predicting Products of Biodegradation. Cometabolism. Environmental Effects. Inoculation. Bioremediation Technologies: In Situ and Solid Phase. Bioremediation Technologies: Ex Situ and Bioreactors. Bioremediation of Metals and Inorganic Pollutants. Recalcitrant Molecules. Formation and Biodegradation of Air Pollutants. Appendix: Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Structures. Index.

1,681 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An updated overview of petroleum hydrocarbon degradation by microorganisms under different ecosystems is presented and it is shown that many indigenous microorganisms in water and soil are capable of degrading hydrocarbon contaminants.
Abstract: One of the major environmental problems today is hydrocarbon contamination resulting from the activities related to the petrochemical industry. Accidental releases of petroleum products are of particular concern in the environment. Hydrocarbon components have been known to belong to the family of carcinogens and neurotoxic organic pollutants. Currently accepted disposal methods of incineration or burial insecure landfills can become prohibitively expensive when amounts of contaminants are large. Mechanical and chemical methods generally used to remove hydrocarbons from contaminated sites have limited effectiveness and can be expensive. Bioremediation is the promising technology for the treatment of these contaminated sites since it is cost-effective and will lead to complete mineralization. Bioremediation functions basically on biodegradation, which may refer to complete mineralization of organic contaminants into carbon dioxide, water, inorganic compounds, and cell protein or transformation of complex organic contaminants to other simpler organic compounds by biological agents like microorganisms. Many indigenous microorganisms in water and soil are capable of degrading hydrocarbon contaminants. This paper presents an updated overview of petroleum hydrocarbon degradation by microorganisms under different ecosystems.

1,534 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is shown that native plant species growing on contaminated sites may have the potential for phytoremediation.

1,456 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20231,126
20222,530
2021913
2020696
2019656
2018650