About: Biosensor is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 22092 publications have been published within this topic receiving 659135 citations. The topic is also known as: biosensor & biosensing techniques.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The major factors that play a role in the development of clinically accurate in-vivo glucose sensors include issues related to biocompatibility, miniaturization, long-term stability of the enzyme and transducer, oxygen deficit, short stabilization times, in- vivo calibration, baseline drift, safety, and convenience.
Abstract: First-generation glucose biosensors relied on the use of the natural oxygen cosubstrate and the production and detection of hydrogen peroxide and were much simpler, especially when miniaturized sensors are concerned. More sophisticated bioelectronic systems for enhancing the electrical response, based on patterned monolayer or multilayer assemblies and organized enzyme networks on solid electrodes, have been developed for contacting GOx with the electrode support. Electrochemical biosensors are well suited for satisfying the needs of personal (home) glucose testing, and the majority of personal blood glucose meters are based on disposable (screen-printed) enzyme electrode test strips, which are mass produced by the thick film (screen-printing) microfabrication technology. In the counter and an additional “baseline” working electrode, various membranes (mesh) are incorporated into the test strips along with surfactants, to provide a uniform sample coverage. Such devices offer considerable promise for obtaining the desired clinical information in a simpler, user-friendly, faster, and cheaper manner compared to traditional assays. Continuous ex-vivo monitoring of blood glucose was proposed in 1974 and the majority of glucose sensors used for in-vivo applications are based on the GOx-catalyzed oxidation of glucose by oxygen. The major factors that play a role in the development of clinically accurate in-vivo glucose sensors include issues related to biocompatibility, miniaturization, long-term stability of the enzyme and transducer, oxygen deficit, short stabilization times, in-vivo calibration, baseline drift, safety, and convenience.
TL;DR: A review of carbon-nanotubes (CNT) based electrochemical biosensors can be found in this paper, where common designs of CNT-based sensors are discussed, along with practical examples of such devices.
Abstract: This review addresses recent advances in carbon-nanotubes (CNT) based electrochemical biosensors. The unique chemical and physical properties of CNT have paved the way to new and improved sensing devices, in general, and electrochemical biosensors, in particular. CNT-based electrochemical transducers offer substantial improvements in the performance of amperometric enzyme electrodes, immunosensors and nucleic-acid sensing devices. The greatly enhanced electrochemical reactivity of hydrogen peroxide and NADH at CNT-modified electrodes makes these nanomaterials extremely attractive for numerous oxidase- and dehydrogenase-based amperometric biosensors. Aligned CNT “forests” can act as molecular wires to allow efficient electron transfer between the underlying electrode and the redox centers of enzymes. Bioaffinity devices utilizing enzyme tags can greatly benefit from the enhanced response of the biocatalytic-reaction product at the CNT transducer and from CNT amplification platforms carrying multiple tags. Common designs of CNT-based biosensors are discussed, along with practical examples of such devices. The successful realization of CNT-based biosensors requires proper control of their chemical and physical properties, as well as their functionalization and surface immobilization.
TL;DR: Fundamentals of SPR affinity biosensors are reviewed and recent advances in development and applications of SPR biosensor are discussed.
Abstract: Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors are optical sensors exploiting special electromagnetic waves—surface plasmon-polaritons—to probe interactions between an analyte in solution and a biomolecular recognition element immobilized on the SPR sensor surface. Major application areas include detection of biological analytes and analysis of biomolecular interactions where SPR biosensors provide benefits of label-free real-time analytical technology. This paper reviews fundamentals of SPR affinity biosensors and discusses recent advances in development and applications of SPR biosensors.
TL;DR: In this article, the most common traditional traditional techniques, such as cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, chronopotentiometry, impedance spectroscopy, and various field-effect transistor based methods are presented along with selected promising novel approaches, including nanowire or magnetic nanoparticle-based biosensing.
Abstract: Quantification of biological or biochemical processes are of utmost importance for medical, biological and biotechnological applications. However, converting the biological information to an easily processed electronic signal is challenging due to the complexity of connecting an electronic device directly to a biological environment. Electrochemical biosensors provide an attractive means to analyze the content of a biological sample due to the direct conversion of a biological event to an electronic signal. Over the past decades several sensing concepts and related devices have been developed. In this review, the most common traditional techniques, such as cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, chronopotentiometry, impedance spectroscopy, and various field-effect transistor based methods are presented along with selected promising novel approaches, such as nanowire or magnetic nanoparticle-based biosensing. Additional measurement techniques, which have been shown useful in combination with electrochemical detection, are also summarized, such as the electrochemical versions of surface plasmon resonance, optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy, ellipsometry, quartz crystal microbalance, and scanning probe microscopy. The signal transduction and the general performance of electrochemical sensors are often determined by the surface architectures that connect the sensing element to the biological sample at the nanometer scale. The most common surface modification techniques, the various electrochemical transduction mechanisms, and the choice of the recognition receptor molecules all influence the ultimate sensitivity of the sensor. New nanotechnology-based approaches, such as the use of engineered ion-channels in lipid bilayers, the encapsulation of enzymes into vesicles, polymersomes, or polyelectrolyte capsules provide additional possibilities for signal amplification. In particular, this review highlights the importance of the precise control over the delicate interplay between surface nano-architectures, surface functionalization and the chosen sensor transducer principle, as well as the usefulness of complementary characterization tools to interpret and to optimize the sensor response.
TL;DR: A biosensor has been developed based on induced wavelength shifts in the Fabry-Perot fringes in the visible-light reflection spectrum of appropriately derivatized thin films of porous silicon semiconductors based on Binding of molecules induced changes in the refractive index of the porous silicon.
Abstract: A biosensor has been developed based on induced wavelength shifts in the Fabry-Perot fringes in the visible-light reflection spectrum of appropriately derivatized thin films of porous silicon semiconductors. Binding of molecules induced changes in the refractive index of the porous silicon. The validity and sensitivity of the system are demonstrated for small organic molecules (biotin and digoxigenin), 16-nucleotide DNA oligomers, and proteins (streptavidin and antibodies) at pico- and femtomolar analyte concentrations. The sensor is also highly effective for detecting single and multilayered molecular assemblies.
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