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About: Birefringence is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 23586 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 363407 citation(s).

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15 Jan 1995
Abstract: 1. Introduction 2. Quantum Dynamics in Hilbert Space 3. The Density Operator and Quantum Dynamics in Liouville Space 4. Quantum Electrodynamics, Optical Polarization, and Nonlinear Spectroscopy 5. Nonlinear Response Functions and Optical Susceptibilities 6. The Optical Response Functions of a Multilevel System with Relaxation 7. Semiclassical Simulation of the Optical Response Functions 8. The Cumulant Expansion and the Multimode Brownian Oscillator Model 9. Fluorescence, Spontaneous-Raman and Coherent-Raman Spectroscopy 10. Selective Elimination of Inhomogeneous Broadening Photon Echoes 11. Resonant Gratings, Pump-Probe, and Hole Burning Spectroscopy 12. Wavepacket Dynamics in Liouville Space The Wigner Representation 13. Wavepacket Analysis of Nonimpulsive Measurements 14. Off-Resonance Raman Scattering 15. Polarization Spectroscopy Birefringence and Dichroism 16. Nonlinear Response of Molecular Assemblies The Local-Field Approximation 17. Many Body and Cooperative Effects in the Nonlinear Response

3,897 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 May 2007
Abstract: Blue phases have two major advantages over commonly used nematic phases:1) the response is much faster, 2) the zero-electric field state is optically isotropic. We demonstrate the sufficiently large electric field-induced birefringence and the micro-second response of the polymer-stabilized blue phases and the induced-isotropic phases without any surface treatment.

1,026 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Using a low-coherence Michelson interferometer, we measure two-dimensional images of optical birefringence in bovine tendon as a function of depth. Polarization-sensitive detection of the signal formed by interference of backscattered light from the sample and a mirror in the reference arm give the optical phase delay between light that is propagating along the fast and slow axes of the birefringent tendon. Images showing the change in birefringence in response to laser irradiation are presented. The technique permits rapid noncontact investigation of tissue structural properties through two-dimensional imaging of birefringence.

928 citations

01 Jan 1999
Abstract: This tutorial covers an introduction to liquid crystal technology and principles of operation of various modes of liquid crystal displays as well as the development of birefringent optical thin film technologies (e.g., polarizers, compensators) for improving the viewing quality of these displays.

842 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 1998-Nature
Abstract: Light-induced rotation of absorbing microscopic particles by transfer of angular momentum from light to the material raises the possibility of optically driven micromachines. The phenomenon has been observed using elliptically polarized laser beams1 or beams with helical phase structure2,3. But it is difficult to develop high power in such experiments because of overheating and unwanted axial forces, limiting the achievable rotation rates to a few hertz. This problem can in principle be overcome by using transparent particles, transferring angular momentum by a mechanism first observed by Beth in 19364, when he reported a tiny torque developed in a quartz ‘wave-plate’ owing to the change in polarization of transmitted light. Here we show that an optical torque can be induced on microscopic birefringent particles of calcite held by optical tweezers5. Depending on the polarization of the incident beam, the particles either become aligned with the plane of polarization (and thus can be rotated through specified angles) or spin with constant rotation frequency. Because these microscopic particles are transparent, they can be held in three-dimensional optical traps at very high power without heating, leading to rotation rates of over 350 Hz.

838 citations

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