About: Bismuth is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 21671 publications have been published within this topic receiving 298244 citations. The topic is also known as: Bi & element 83.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Electrical transport measurements, coupled with microstructure studies and modeling, show that the ZT improvement is the result of low thermal conductivity caused by the increased phonon scattering by grain boundaries and defects, which makes these materials useful for cooling and power generation.
Abstract: The dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) in bismuth antimony telluride (BiSbTe) bulk alloys has remained around 1 for more than 50 years. We show that a peak ZT of 1.4 at 100°C can be achieved in a p-type nanocrystalline BiSbTe bulk alloy. These nanocrystalline bulk materials were made by hot pressing nanopowders that were ball-milled from crystalline ingots under inert conditions. Electrical transport measurements, coupled with microstructure studies and modeling, show that the ZT improvement is the result of low thermal conductivity caused by the increased phonon scattering by grain boundaries and defects. More importantly, ZT is about 1.2 at room temperature and 0.8 at 250°C, which makes these materials useful for cooling and power generation. Cooling devices that use these materials have produced high-temperature differences of 86°, 106°, and 119°C with hot-side temperatures set at 50°, 100°, and 150°C, respectively. This discovery sets the stage for use of a new nanocomposite approach in developing high-performance low-cost bulk thermoelectric materials.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors show that lanthanum-substituted bismuth titanate (SBT) thin films provide a promising alternative for FRAM applications, since they are fatigue-free on metal electrodes, they can be deposited at temperatures of ∼650°C and their values of Pr are larger than those of the SBT films.
Abstract: Non-volatile memory devices are so named because they retain information when power is interrupted; thus they are important computer components. In this context, there has been considerable recent interest1,2 in developing non-volatile memories that use ferroelectric thin films—‘ferroelectric random access memories’, or FRAMs—in which information is stored in the polarization state of the ferroelectric material. To realize a practical FRAM, the thin films should satisfy the following criteria: compatibility with existing dynamic random access memory technologies, large remnant polarization (Pr) and reliable polarization-cycling characteristics. Early work focused on lead zirconate titanate (PZT) but, when films of this material were grown on metal electrodes, they generally suffered from a reduction of Pr (‘fatigue’) with polarity switching. Strontium bismuth tantalate (SBT) and related oxides have been proposed to overcome the fatigue problem3, but such materials have other shortcomings, such as a high deposition temperature. Here we show that lanthanum-substituted bismuth titanate thin films provide a promising alternative for FRAM applications. The films are fatigue-free on metal electrodes, they can be deposited at temperatures of ∼650 °C and their values of Pr are larger than those of the SBT films.
TL;DR: A dramatic improvement of efficiency is shown in bismuth telluride samples by quickly squeezing out excess liquid during compaction, which presents an attractive path forward for thermoelectrics.
Abstract: The widespread use of thermoelectric technology is constrained by a relatively low conversion efficiency of the bulk alloys, which is evaluated in terms of a dimensionless figure of merit ( zT ). The zT of bulk alloys can be improved by reducing lattice thermal conductivity through grain boundary and point-defect scattering, which target low- and high-frequency phonons. Dense dislocation arrays formed at low-energy grain boundaries by liquid-phase compaction in Bi 0.5 Sb 1.5 Te 3 (bismuth antimony telluride) effectively scatter midfrequency phonons, leading to a substantially lower lattice thermal conductivity. Full-spectrum phonon scattering with minimal charge-carrier scattering dramatically improved the zT to 1.86 ± 0.15 at 320 kelvin (K). Further, a thermoelectric cooler confirmed the performance with a maximum temperature difference of 81 K, which is much higher than current commercial Peltier cooling devices.
TL;DR: Stripping voltammetric measurements of microgram per liter levels of cadmium, lead, thallium, and zinc in nondeaerated solutions yielded well-defined peaks, along with a low background, following short deposition periods, indicating great promise to centralized and decentralized testing of trace metals.
Abstract: Bismuth-coated carbon electrodes display an attractive stripping voltammetric performance which compares favorably with that of common mercury-film electrodes. These bismuth-film electrodes are prepared by adding 400 μg/L (ppb) bismuth(III) directly to the sample solution and simultanously depositing the bismuth and target metals on the glassy-carbon or carbon-fiber substrate. Stripping voltammetric measurements of microgram per liter levels of cadmium, lead, thallium, and zinc in nondeaerated solutions yielded well-defined peaks, along with a low background, following short deposition periods. Detection limit of 1.1 and 0.3 ppb lead are obtained following 2- and 10-min deposition, respectively. Changes in the peak potentials (compared to those observed at mercury electrodes) offer new selectivity dimensions. Scanning electron microscopy sheds useful insights into the different morphologies of the bismuth deposits on the carbon substrates. The in situ bismuth-plated electrodes exhibit a wide accessible po...