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Bjerrum length

About: Bjerrum length is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 156 publications have been published within this topic receiving 5936 citations.


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TL;DR: The thermodynamic consequences of electrostatic correlations in a variety of systems ranging from classical plasmas to molecular biology are reviewed.
Abstract: Electrostatic correlations play an important role in physics, chemistry and biology. In plasmas they result in thermodynamic instability similar to the liquid–gas phase transition of simple molecular fluids. For charged colloidal suspensions the electrostatic correlations are responsible for screening and colloidal charge renormalization. In aqueous solutions containing multivalent counterions they can lead to charge inversion and flocculation. In biological systems the correlations account for the organization of cytoskeleton and the compaction of genetic material. In spite of their ubiquity, the true importance of electrostatic correlations has come to be fully appreciated only quite recently. In this paper, we will review the thermodynamic consequences of electrostatic correlations in a variety of systems ranging from classical plasmas to molecular biology.

988 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present results of molecular dynamics simulations of linear polyelectrolytes in solution and reveal a new picture of the chain structure based on calculations of the structure factor, persistence length, end-to-end distance, etc.
Abstract: We present results of molecular dynamics simulations of linear polyelectrolytes in solution. The fundamental model for polyelectrolytes in solution is studied. Specifically, simulations are performed for multichain systems of a flexible chain model of charged polymers. The full Coulomb interactions of the monomers and counterions are treated explicitly. Experimental measurements of the osmotic pressure and the structure factor are reproduced. The simulations reveal a new picture of the chain structure based on calculations of the structure factor, persistence length, end‐to‐end distance, etc. We present a detailed discussion of the chain structure and a comparison with present theories. In contrast to the predicted dilute limit of rodlike chains, we find that the chains have significant bending at very low densities. Furthermore, the chains contract significantly before they overlap. We also show that counterion condensation dramatically alters the chain structure.

436 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the adsorption of semi-lexible charged polymers on an oppositely charged flat substrate was studied, and it was shown that the effective bending rigidity (which includes chain stiffening due to electrostatic monomer−monomer repulsion) is always larger than the screening length.
Abstract: We study theoretically the adsorption of semiflexible charged polymers on an oppositely charged flat substrate. We restrict ourselves to polymers with relatively high line charge density τ and bare bending stiffness 𝓁0, such as DNA or fully charged synthetic polyelectrolytes, for which the condition τ2𝓁B𝓁0 > 1 (with 𝓁B = e2/4πekBT denoting the Bjerrum length) is satisfied. In this case the effective bending rigidity (which includes chain stiffening due to electrostatic monomer−monomer repulsion) is always larger than the screening length, and we obtain very thin adsorption layers, where the polymers essentially lie flat on the surface and can be considered as a two-dimensional layer. We distinguish different adsorbed phases, including a two-dimensional lamellar phase where the polymers run parallel and do not overlap and a disordered phase where the polymers form a random network with multiple crossings. By explicitly including lateral correlations within the adsorbed layer, we find a regime of strong cha...

257 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A simple scaling theory is derived that explains this anomalous dependence of the decay length on the ion concentration for concentrated electrolytes and can be an order of magnitude larger than the ion diameter in ionic liquids.
Abstract: The interaction between charged objects in an electrolyte solution is a fundamental question in soft matter physics. It is well known that the electrostatic contribution to the interaction energy decays exponentially with object separation. Recent measurements reveal that, contrary to the conventional wisdom given by the classic Poisson-Boltzmann theory, the decay length increases with the ion concentration for concentrated electrolytes and can be an order of magnitude larger than the ion diameter in ionic liquids. We derive a simple scaling theory that explains this anomalous dependence of the decay length on the ion concentration. Our theory successfully collapses the decay lengths of a wide class of salts onto a single curve. A novel prediction of our theory is that the decay length increases linearly with the Bjerrum length, which we experimentally verify by surface force measurements. Moreover, we quantitatively relate the measured decay length to classic measurements of the activity coefficient in concentrated electrolytes, thus showing that the measured decay length is indeed a bulk property of the concentrated electrolyte as well as contributing a mechanistic insight into empirical activity coefficients.

162 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a simple method to predict effective charges of highly charged macro-ions, that is reliable for monovalent electrolytes (and counterions) in the colloidal limit (large size compared to both screening length and Bjerrum length).
Abstract: Because micro-ions accumulate around highly charged colloidal particles in electrolyte solutions, the relevant parameter to compute their interactions is not the bare charge, but an effective (or renormalized) quantity, whose value is sensitive to the geometry of the colloid, the temperature or the presence of added-salt. This nonlinear screening effect is a central feature in the field of colloidal suspensions or polyelectrolyte solutions. We propose a simple method to predict effective charges of highly charged macro-ions, that is reliable for monovalent electrolytes (and counterions) in the colloidal limit (large size compared to both screening length and Bjerrum length). Taking reference to the non linear Poisson–Boltzmann theory, the method is successfully tested against the geometry of the macro-ions, the possible confinement in a Wigner–Seitz cell, and the presence of added salt. Moreover, our results are corroborated by various experimental measures reported in the literature. This approach provid...

156 citations

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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20216
20208
20193
20184
201710
20165