Topic

# Black hole thermodynamics

About: Black hole thermodynamics is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 7975 publications have been published within this topic receiving 326556 citations.

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TL;DR: In this article, it is shown that quantum mechanical effects cause black holes to create and emit particles as if they were hot bodies with temperature, which leads to a slow decrease in the mass of the black hole and to its eventual disappearance.

Abstract: In the classical theory black holes can only absorb and not emit particles. However it is shown that quantum mechanical effects cause black holes to create and emit particles as if they were hot bodies with temperature\(\frac{{h\kappa }}{{2\pi k}} \approx 10^{ - 6} \left( {\frac{{M_ \odot }}{M}} \right){}^ \circ K\) where κ is the surface gravity of the black hole. This thermal emission leads to a slow decrease in the mass of the black hole and to its eventual disappearance: any primordial black hole of mass less than about 1015 g would have evaporated by now. Although these quantum effects violate the classical law that the area of the event horizon of a black hole cannot decrease, there remains a Generalized Second Law:S+1/4A never decreases whereS is the entropy of matter outside black holes andA is the sum of the surface areas of the event horizons. This shows that gravitational collapse converts the baryons and leptons in the collapsing body into entropy. It is tempting to speculate that this might be the reason why the Universe contains so much entropy per baryon.

10,022 citations

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TL;DR: It is argued that the entanglement entropy in d + 1 dimensional conformal field theories can be obtained from the area of d dimensional minimal surfaces in AdS(d+2), analogous to the Bekenstein-Hawking formula for black hole entropy.

Abstract: A holographic derivation of the entanglement entropy in quantum (conformal) field theories is proposed from anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence. We argue that the entanglement entropy in d + 1 dimensional conformal field theories can be obtained from the area of d dimensional minimal surfaces in AdS(d+2), analogous to the Bekenstein-Hawking formula for black hole entropy. We show that our proposal agrees perfectly with the entanglement entropy in 2D CFT when applied to AdS(3). We also compare the entropy computed in AdS(5)XS(5) with that of the free N=4 super Yang-Mills theory.

3,889 citations

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TL;DR: The correspondence between supergravity and string theory on AdS space and boundary conformal eld theory relates the thermodynamics of N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions to the thermodynamic properties of Schwarzschild black holes in Anti-de Sitter space as mentioned in this paper.

Abstract: The correspondence between supergravity (and string theory) on AdS space and boundary conformal eld theory relates the thermodynamics of N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions to the thermodynamics of Schwarzschild black holes in Anti-de Sitter space. In this description, quantum phenomena such as the spontaneous breaking of the center of the gauge group, magnetic connement, and the mass gap are coded in classical geometry. The correspondence makes it manifest that the entropy of a very large AdS Schwarzschild black hole must scale \holographically" with the volume of its horizon. By similar methods, one can also make a speculative proposal for the description of large N gauge theories in four dimensions without supersymmetry.

3,860 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, it was shown that any black hole will create and emit particles such as neutrinos or photons at just the rate that one would expect if the black hole was a body with a temperature of (κ/2π) (ħ/2k) ≈ 10−6 (M/M)K where κ is the surface gravity of the body.

Abstract: QUANTUM gravitational effects are usually ignored in calculations of the formation and evolution of black holes. The justification for this is that the radius of curvature of space-time outside the event horizon is very large compared to the Planck length (Għ/c3)1/2 ≈ 10−33 cm, the length scale on which quantum fluctuations of the metric are expected to be of order unity. This means that the energy density of particles created by the gravitational field is small compared to the space-time curvature. Even though quantum effects may be small locally, they may still, however, add up to produce a significant effect over the lifetime of the Universe ≈ 1017 s which is very long compared to the Planck time ≈ 10−43 s. The purpose of this letter is to show that this indeed may be the case: it seems that any black hole will create and emit particles such as neutrinos or photons at just the rate that one would expect if the black hole was a body with a temperature of (κ/2π) (ħ/2k) ≈ 10−6 (M/M)K where κ is the surface gravity of the black hole1. As a black hole emits this thermal radiation one would expect it to lose mass. This in turn would increase the surface gravity and so increase the rate of emission. The black hole would therefore have a finite life of the order of 1071 (M/M)−3 s. For a black hole of solar mass this is much longer than the age of the Universe. There might, however, be much smaller black holes which were formed by fluctuations in the early Universe2. Any such black hole of mass less than 1015 g would have evaporated by now. Near the end of its life the rate of emission would be very high and about 1030 erg would be released in the last 0.1 s. This is a fairly small explosion by astronomical standards but it is equivalent to about 1 million 1 Mton hydrogen bombs. It is often said that nothing can escape from a black hole. But in 1974, Stephen Hawking realized that, owing to quantum effects, black holes should emit particles with a thermal distribution of energies — as if the black hole had a temperature inversely proportional to its mass. In addition to putting black-hole thermodynamics on a firmer footing, this discovery led Hawking to postulate 'black hole explosions', as primordial black holes end their lives in an accelerating release of energy.

3,859 citations

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TL;DR: The Bekenstein-Hawking area entropy relation S BH = A 4 was derived for a class of five-dimensional extremal black holes in string theory by counting the degeneracy of BPS solition bound states.

Abstract: The Bekenstein-Hawking area-entropy relation S BH = A 4 is derived for a class of five-dimensional extremal black holes in string theory by counting the degeneracy of BPS solition bound states.

3,299 citations