About: Blood sugar is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 11591 publications have been published within this topic receiving 246952 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: It is shown that adipocytes secrete a unique signalling molecule, which is named resistin (for resistance to insulin), which circulating resistin levels are decreased by the anti-diabetic drug rosiglitazone, and increased in diet-induced and genetic forms of obesity.
Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that leads to complications including heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, blindness and nerve damage. Type 2 diabetes, characterized by target-tissue resistance to insulin, is epidemic in industrialized societies and is strongly associated with obesity; however, the mechanism by which increased adiposity causes insulin resistance is unclear. Here we show that adipocytes secrete a unique signalling molecule, which we have named resistin (for resistance to insulin). Circulating resistin levels are decreased by the anti-diabetic drug rosiglitazone, and increased in diet-induced and genetic forms of obesity. Administration of anti-resistin antibody improves blood sugar and insulin action in mice with diet-induced obesity. Moreover, treatment of normal mice with recombinant resistin impairs glucose tolerance and insulin action. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by adipocytes is enhanced by neutralization of resistin and is reduced by resistin treatment. Resistin is thus a hormone that potentially links obesity to diabetes.
Ohio State University1, National Institutes of Health2, George Washington University3, Brown University4, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston5, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center6, Columbia University7, University of Utah8, University of Alabama at Birmingham9, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill10, Drexel University11, Case Western Reserve University12, Wake Forest University13, University of Texas Medical Branch14, University of Pittsburgh15, Wayne State University16, Northwestern University17, Oregon Health & Science University18
TL;DR: Treatment of mild gestational diabetes mellitus did not significantly reduce the frequency of a composite outcome that included stillbirth or perinatal death and several neonatal complications, but it did reduce the risks of fetal overgrowth, shoulder dystocia, cesarean delivery, and hypertensive disorders.
Abstract: Background It is uncertain whether treatment of mild gestational diabetes mellitus improves pregnancy outcomes. Methods Women who were in the 24th to 31st week of gestation and who met the criteria for mild gestational diabetes mellitus (i.e., an abnormal result on an oral glucose-tolerance test but a fasting glucose level below 95 mg per deciliter [5.3 mmol per liter]) were randomly assigned to usual prenatal care (control group) or dietary intervention, self-monitoring of blood glucose, and insulin therapy, if necessary (treatment group). The primary outcome was a composite of stillbirth or perinatal death and neonatal complications, including hyperbilirubinemia, hypoglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and birth trauma. Results A total of 958 women were randomly assigned to a study group — 485 to the treatment group and 473 to the control group. We observed no significant difference between groups in the frequency of the composite outcome (32.4% and 37.0% in the treatment and control groups, respectively; P=0.1...
TL;DR: The data suggest that dietary fructose specifically increases DNL, promotes dyslipidemia, decreases insulin sensitivity, and increases visceral adiposity in overweight/obese adults.
Abstract: Studies in animals have documented that, compared with glucose, dietary fructose induces dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. To assess the relative effects of these dietary sugars during sustained consumption in humans, overweight and obese subjects consumed glucose- or fructose-sweetened beverages providing 25% of energy requirements for 10 weeks. Although both groups exhibited similar weight gain during the intervention, visceral adipose volume was significantly increased only in subjects consuming fructose. Fasting plasma triglyceride concentrations increased by approximately 10% during 10 weeks of glucose consumption but not after fructose consumption. In contrast, hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and the 23-hour postprandial triglyceride AUC were increased specifically during fructose consumption. Similarly, markers of altered lipid metabolism and lipoprotein remodeling, including fasting apoB, LDL, small dense LDL, oxidized LDL, and postprandial concentrations of remnant-like particle-triglyceride and -cholesterol significantly increased during fructose but not glucose consumption. In addition, fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels increased and insulin sensitivity decreased in subjects consuming fructose but not in those consuming glucose. These data suggest that dietary fructose specifically increases DNL, promotes dyslipidemia, decreases insulin sensitivity, and increases visceral adiposity in overweight/obese adults.
TL;DR: The periodic monitoring of hemoglobin AIc levels provides a useful way of documenting the degree of control of glucose metabolism in diabetic patients and provides a means whereby the relation of carbohydrate control to the development of sequelae can be assessed.
Abstract: We studied the increased levels of hemoglobins AIa+Ib and AIc in five hospitalized diabetic patients to determine whether changes in diabetic control would cause parallel changes in the levels of these hemoglobins. Before control of diabetes the mean fasting blood sugar for all patients was 343 mg per deciliter (range, 280 to 450), and hemoglobin AIc concentration 9.8 per cent (range, 6.8 to 12.1). During optimal diabetic control the blood sugar concentration was 84 mg per deciliter (range, 70 to 100), and hemoglobin AIc concentration 5.8 per cent (range, 4.2 to 7.6). Hemoglobin AIc concentration appears to reflect the mean blood sugar concentration best over previous weeks to months. The periodic monitoring of hemoglobin AIc levels provides a useful way of documenting the degree of control of glucose metabolism in diabetic patients and provides a means whereby the relation of carbohydrate control to the development of sequelae can be assessed.
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