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# Boltzmann equation

About: Boltzmann equation is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 16348 publications have been published within this topic receiving 432282 citations.

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TL;DR: In this paper, a kinetic theory approach to collision processes in ionized and neutral gases is presented, which is adequate for the unified treatment of the dynamic properties of gases over a continuous range of pressures from the Knudsen limit to the high pressure limit where the aerodynamic equations are valid.

Abstract: A kinetic theory approach to collision processes in ionized and neutral gases is presented. This approach is adequate for the unified treatment of the dynamic properties of gases over a continuous range of pressures from the Knudsen limit to the high-pressure limit where the aerodynamic equations are valid. It is also possible to satisfy the correct microscopic boundary conditions. The method consists in altering the collision terms in the Boltzmann equation. The modified collision terms are constructed so that each collision conserves particle number, momentum, and energy; other characteristics such as persistence of velocities and angular dependence may be included. The present article illustrates the technique for a simple model involving the assumption of a collision time independent of velocity; this model is applied to the study of small amplitude oscillations of one-component ionized and neutral gases. The initial value problem for unbounded space is solved by performing a Fourier transformation on the space variables and a Laplace transformation on the time variable. For uncharged gases there results the correct adiabatic limiting law for sound-wave propagation at high pressures and, in addition, one obtains a theory of absorption and dispersion of sound for arbitrary pressures. For ionized gases the difference in the nature of the organization in the low-pressure plasma oscillations and in high-pressure sound-type oscillations is studied. Two important cases are distinguished. If the wavelengths of the oscillations are long compared to either the Debye length or the mean free path, a small change in frequency is obtained as the collision frequency varies from zero to infinity. The accompanying absorption is small; it reaches its maximum value when the collision frequency equals the plasma frequency. The second case refers to waves shorter than both the Debye length and the mean free path; these waves are characterized by a very heavy absorption.

6,627 citations

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TL;DR: An overview of the lattice Boltzmann method, a parallel and efficient algorithm for simulating single-phase and multiphase fluid flows and for incorporating additional physical complexities, is presented.

Abstract: We present an overview of the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), a parallel and efficient algorithm for simulating single-phase and multiphase fluid flows and for incorporating additional physical complexities. The LBM is especially useful for modeling complicated boundary conditions and multiphase interfaces. Recent extensions of this method are described, including simulations of fluid turbulence, suspension flows, and reaction diffusion systems.

6,565 citations

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01 Jan 1988

TL;DR: In this article, the Boltzmann Equation for rigid spheres is used to model the dynamics of a gas of rigid spheres in phase space and to solve the problem of flow and heat transfer in regions bounded by planes or cylinders.

Abstract: I. Basic Principles of The Kinetic Theory of Gases.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Probability.- 3. Phase space and Liouville's theorem.- 4. Hard spheres and rigid walls. Mean free path.- 5. Scattering of a volume element in phase space.- 6. Time averages, ergodic hypothesis and equilibrium states.- References.- II. The Boltzmann Equation.- 1. The problem of nonequilibrium states.- 2. Equations for the many particle distribution functions for a gas of rigid spheres.- 3. The Boltzmann equation for rigid spheres.- 4. Generalizations.- 5. Details of the collision term.- 6. Elementary properties of the collision operator. Collision invariants.- 7. Solution of the equation Q(f,f) = 0.- 8. Connection between the microscopic description and the macroscopic description of gas dynamics.- 9. Non-cutoff potentials and grazing collisions. Fokker-Planck equation.- 10. Model equations.- References.- III. Gas-Surface Interaction and the H-Theorem.- 1. Boundary conditions and the gas-surface interaction.- 2. Computation of scattering kernels.- 3. Reciprocity.- 4. A remarkable inequality.- 5. Maxwell's boundary conditions. Accommodation coefficients.- 6. Mathematical models for gas-surface interaction.- 7. Physical models for gas-surface interaction.- 8. Scattering of molecular beams.- 9. The H-theorem. Irreversibility.- 10. Equilibrium states and Maxwellian distributions.- References.- IV, Linear Transport.- 1. The linearized collision operator.- 2. The linearized Boltzmann equation.- 3. The linear Boltzmann equation. Neutron transport and radiative transfer.- 4. Uniqueness of the solution for initial and boundary value problems.- 5. Further investigation of the linearized collision term.- 6. The decay to equilibrium and the spectrum of the collision operator.- 7. Steady one-dimensional problems. Transport coefficients.- 8. The general case.- 9. Linearized kinetic models.- 10. The variational principle.- 11. Green's function.- 12. The integral equation approach.- References.- V. Small and Large Mean Free Paths.- 1. The Knudsen number.- 2. The Hilbert expansion.- 3. The Chapman-Enskog expansion.- 4. Criticism of the Chapman-Enskog method.- 5. Initial, boundary and shock layers.- 6. Further remarks on the Chapman-Enskog method and the computation of transport coefficients.- 7. Free molecule flow past a convex body.- 8. Free molecule flow in presence of nonconvex boundaries.- 9. Nearly free-molecule flows.- References.- VI. Analytical Solutions of Models.- 1. The method of elementary solutions.- 2. Splitting of a one-dimensional model equation.- 3. Elementary solutions of the simplest transport equation.- 4. Application of the general method to the Kramers and Milne problems.- 5. Application to the flow between parallel plates and the critical problem of a slab.- 6. Unsteady solutions of kinetic models with constant collision frequency.- 7. Analytical solutions of specific problems.- 8. More general models.- 9. Some special cases.- 10. Unsteady solutions of kinetic models with velocity dependent collision frequency.- 11. Analytic continuation.- 12. Sound propagation in monatomic gases.- 13. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional problems. Flow past solid bodies.- 14. Fluctuations and light scattering.- References.- VII. The Transition Regime.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Moment and discrete ordinate methods.- 3. The variational method.- 4. Monte Carlo methods.- 5. Problems of flow and heat transfer in regions bounded by planes or cylinders.- 6. Shock-wave structure.- 7. External flows.- 8. Expansion of a gas into a vacuum.- References.- VIII. Theorems on the Solutions of the Boltzmann Equation.- 1. Introduction.- 2. The space homogeneous case.- 3. Mollified and other modified versions of the Boltzmann equation.- 4. Nonstandard analysis approach to the Boltzmann equation.- 5. Local existence and validity of the Boltzmann equation.- 6. Global existence near equilibrium.- 7. Perturbations of vacuum.- 8. Homoenergetic solutions.- 9. Boundary value problems. The linearized and weakly nonlinear cases.- 10. Nonlinear boundary value problems.- 11. Concluding remarks.- References.- References.- Author Index.

2,987 citations

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TL;DR: A lattice Boltzmann model is developed which has the ability to simulate flows containing multiple phases and components and is highly efficient to compute on massively parallel computers.

Abstract: A lattice Boltzmann model is developed which has the ability to simulate flows containing multiple phases and components. Each of the components can be immiscible with the others and can have different mass values. The equilibrium state of each component can have a nonideal gas equation of state at a prescribed temperature exhibiting thermodynamic phase transitions. The scheme incorporated in this model is the introduction of an interparticle potential. The dynamical rules in this model are local so it is highly efficient to compute on massively parallel computers. This model has many applications in large-scale numerical simulations of various types of fluid flows.

2,719 citations